wetten, regels en verdragen - de volledige tekst




De volledige wettekst
Advocaten offertes en tarieven Tarieven van advocaten

notaris offertes en tarieven Tarieven van notarissen

Incassobureaus offertes en tarieven Tarieven incassobureaus


sponsors en advertenties van de WettenSite.nl

Juridische boeken online bestellen bij BOL.com, de grootste online boekhandel van Nederland.
Partner-sites
Bezoek ook onze partner-sites
De RechtenSite.nl JuridischeWoorden.nl JuridischeVacatures.net
links naar juridisch websites
Links naar andere juridisch relevante websites vindt u hier.
juridische wetbundels - boeken met wetten en regels bestellen
Uw wetbundels, wettenverzamelingen, Kluwer collegebundel of Vermande wettenbundel bestelt u eenvoudig, voordelig en snel online. Zie onze speciale juridische boeken website.
Volledige tekst van: voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen.

Gratis de volledige en complete tekst van voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen


Hieronder treft u online de volledige tekst aan van:
De voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen

Tekst van de voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen


Wilt u graag alle relevante in een overzicht hebben? Bestel dan nu een van de vele wetbundels en beschik direct over alle relevante juridische informatie.

voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen - Geldig op 0000-00-00

EN EN

EN

EN 1 EN

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

Brussels, 16.7.2008

SEC(2008) 2287

COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT

accompanying the

Proposal for a

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE

amending Council Directive 2006/116/EC as regards the term of protection of copyright

and related rights

IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON

THE LEGAL AND ECONOMIC SITUATION OF PERFORMERS AND

RECORD PRODUCERS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

{COM(2008) 464 final}

{SEC(2008) 2288}

EN 2 EN

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This Impact Assessment (IA) analyses the economic and social situation of performers and

record producers in the European Union.

With respect to performing artists, this IA shows that many European musicians or singers

start their career in their early 20's. That means that when the current 50 year protection

ends, they will be in their 70's and likely to live well into their 80's and 90's (average life

expectancy in the EU is 75 years for men and 81 years for women). As a result, performers

face an income gap at the end of their lifetimes, as they lose royalty payments from record

companies as well as remuneration due for the broadcasting or public performance of their

sound recordings. The latter income streams are paid to performers directly through their

collecting societies and are not affected by their contractual arrangements with the record

companies.

For session musicians, who play background music, and lesser known artists, that means that

broadcasting and public performance income decreases when performers are at the most

vulnerable period of their lives, i.e. when they are approaching retirement. Once copyright

protection expires, they will also lose out on potential revenue when their early performances

are sold on the Internet.

Moreover, when their rights expire performers are exposed to potentially objectionable uses

of their performance which are harmful to their name or reputation. Performers are also at a

disadvantage as compared to authors whose works are protected until 70 years after their

death. This could be seen as unfair since performers are nowadays not only just as necessary

as authors but also more identifiable with the commercial success of a sound recording.

As regards producers of sound recordings, the IA shows that their principal challenge is peerto-

peer piracy and their need to adapt their business to the challenges of dematerialised

distribution. In these circumstances, they face the challenge of keeping up the steady revenue

stream necessary to invest in new talent. Record companies claim that they invest around

17% of their revenues in the development of new talent, i.e. to sign new talent, promote

untried talent and produce innovative recordings. Therefore, a longer term of protection

would generate additional income to help finance new talent and would allow record

companies to better spread the risk in developing new talent. Due to uncertain returns (only

one in eight sound recordings is successful) and so-called 'information asymmetries' such

revenue is often not available on capital markets.

The impact assessment analyses the economic, social and cultural impacts of six options

This IA presents a total of seven options, but one option was discarded before the analysis of

impacts. Apart from the standard option of 'doing nothing' and letting the music market

develop, the IA analyses two options linked to the term of protection for sound recordings and

three options that would not require a change in the current terms that apply to sound

recordings.

With respect to the term of protection this IA looks at the option of extending the term of

performers to 'life or 50 years', whichever is longer. This option would enhance the status of

performers and, by linking protection to their lifetime, recognise the individual and creative

nature of their performances. This option would not only apply to the performers' exclusive

EN 3 EN

rights but also to the variety of broadcasting and public performance rights that are not

transferred to the record companies.

Another option involving the term of protection would be to extend the current 50 year term to

95 years for performers and record companies. This option ensures full equivalence with the

longest term of protection in the world. In order to ensure that the benefit of term extension

accrues to performing artists, especially session musicians that have transferred their related

right against a one off payment, the extension of the term of protection for record companies

should be accompanied by the payment of a certain percentage of record companies'

increased revenues into a fund dedicated to improving the situation of session musicians.

Again, as in the 'life or 50 year' option, the remuneration for broadcasting and public

performance would remain with the performer for 95 years.

Another set of options looks at ways to address the problems identified above without

modifying the term of protection. These options comprise various possibilities which could

improve the financial situation and moral rights of performers. These measures, of course,

could be used either as alternatives to a term extension or as measures to complement an

extension of the term of protection. Several of these measures could only be the subject of

Community legislation.

This IA describes how performers contractually transfer their exclusive rights to record

labels, (including their reproduction, distribution, rental and making available rights, but not

their remuneration claims for broadcasting and public performances. In order to limit the

effect of the systematic contractual transfer of performers' exclusive rights to record

companies, the IA examines the possibility of an 'unwaivable' right to remuneration to which

performers would remain entitled even after having transferred their making available right

to a record producer. The creation of a claim for equitable remuneration for online sales or

other forms of making performances available online is an interesting option, whose time may

yet come. However, at this stage, the uncertainties surrounding the issue of who should pay

this 'equitable remuneration' are such that the likely effects of this option cannot be quantified

with any reasonable measure of certainty. In light of the uncertainties surrounding the

practical administration of the claim for equitable remuneration, further study on this option

is imperative. While in the future this option might well be introduced to enhance performers'

participation in revenue generated online, it is too early to discuss at this stage. This option

was therefore discarded before the analysis of impacts.

Another option analysed is to strengthen performers' moral rights. The scope of their moral

rights could be harmonised to include a right to restrict derogatory uses of their

performances.

A further option is to ensure that 'use it or lose it' clauses are included in agreements between

performers and record labels. This means that, if a record company is unwilling to re-release

a performance during the extended term, the performer can move to another record company

or exploit the record himself.

The impacts of the different options

All options are assessed against the following six operational objectives: (1) gradually align

authors' and performers' protection; (2) incrementally increase the remuneration of

performers; (3) diminish the discrepancies in protection between the EU and US; (4)

EN 4 EN

incrementally increase A&R resources, i.e., the development of new talent; (5) ensure

availability of music at reasonable prices; and (6) encourage digitisation of back catalogue.

The IA concludes that 'doing nothing' is not a preferable option. If nothing was done,

thousands of European performers who recorded in the late fifties and sixties would lose all

of their airplay royalties over the next ten years. This would have considerable social and

cultural impacts. Equally, the sound recording industry would be obliged to cut down on the

creation of new sound recordings in Europe.

The IA considers the impact of options not involving the term of performers' and record

producers' rights (options 3a, b, c and d). Option 3a (unwaivable right to equitable

remuneration) appears premature as it is unclear who would pay for this remuneration and it

is hard to estimate the financial benefit it would bring. Option 3b (the strengthening of moral

rights), has no financial impact on performers and record producers. Option 3c, the 'use it or

lose it' clause, would be beneficial to performers by allowing them to make sure their

performances are available on the market. It would also be beneficial for cultural diversity.

Option 3d, the fund to be set up by record companies, would be very beneficial to nonfeatured

performer. Record producers, however, would have to pay into the fund at least 20%

of the additional revenue generated by the term extension. However, the IA concludes that

marketing sound recordings would remain profitable for record companies despite having to

pay 20% towards thus fund.

Options involving a term extension (2a "life or 50 years" and 2b "95 years for performers and

record producers") seem to be rather more suitable in contributing towards the six policy

objectives. Both options 2a and 2b bring financial benefits to performers and would thus

allow more performers to dedicate more time to their artistic activities.

Option 2a, by linking the term to the life of a performer, would contribute to aligning the legal

protection of performers and authors. It would reflect the personal nature of performers'

artistic contributions and recognise that performers are as essential as authors to bringing

music to the public. It would also allow performers to object to derogatory uses of their works

during their lifetime.

In addition, option 2b would increase the pool of A&R resources available to record

producers and could thus have an additional positive impact on cultural diversity. This IA

also demonstrates that the benefits of a term extension are not necessarily skewed in favour of

famous featured performers. While featured performers certainly earn the bulk of the

copyright royalties that are negotiated with the record companies, all performers, be it

featured artists or session musicians, are entitled to so-called 'secondary' income sources,

such as single equitable remuneration when the sound recording incorporating their

performances is broadcast or performed in public. A term extension would ensure that these

income sources do not cease during the performer's lifetime. Even incremental increases in

income are used by performers to buy more time to devote to their artistic careers, and to

spend less time on part time employment. Moreover, for the thousands of anonymous session

musicians who were at the peak of their careers in the late fifties and sixties, 'single equitable

remuneration' for the broadcasting of their recordings is often the only source of income left

from their artistic career.

In addition to ensuring the increased availability of A&R, option 2b is also easier to

implement than option 2a, because the latter option is linked to the life of individual

performers. As the example of co-written works demonstrates, linking a copyright to the life of

EN 5 EN

individual contributors raises complex issues when several performers contribute to a sound

recording. These would increase the legislative and administrative burden on Member States

and create legal uncertainty, because the term of protection to the term of protection would

no longer be linked to a certain and uniform date, i.e., the publication of the phonogram that

contains the performance, but to the sometimes very different lifetimes of individual coperformers.

What are the likely provisions in the proposal to ensure that it is the performing artists that

benefit?

In order to ensure that the benefit of term extension would accrue to performing artists,

especially session musicians, this IA concludes that record companies should contribute

towards a fund for session musicians (option 3d). In order to have the financial volume

necessary to ensure real benefits for session musicians, this IA proposes that the record

companies set aside at least 20% of the revenue that accrues during the extended term for

session musicians. The fund's impact on session musicians would be positive, as the average

performer' additional annual revenues during a 45-year term would almost triple

In respect of featured artists, the Commission's analysis concludes that original advances

paid by the record companies should no longer be set off against royalties in the extended

term. That means the artist would get all the royalties during the extended term.

The IA also proposes that a term extension should be accompanied by a 'use it or lose it'

provision (option 3c). This means that, in the event that a record company is unwilling to rerelease

a performance during the extended term, the performer can move to another record

company or make his performance available himself.

Empirical studies show that the impact of a term extension would not be negative for

consumers.

Empirical studies show that the price of sound recordings that are out of copyright is not

lower than that of sound recordings in copyright. This is true in relation to statutory

remuneration claims and for the sale of CDs.

The 'single equitable remuneration' due for broadcasting and performances of music in public

venues would remain the same as these payments are calculated as a percentage of the

broadcasters or other operators' revenue. As far as CD sales are concerned, very few studies

analyse the price between prices of in-copyright and out-of copyright recordings. A study by

Price Waterhouse Coopers concluded that there was no systematic difference between prices

of in-copyright and out-of copyright recordings. It is the most comprehensive study to date

and covers 129 albums recorded between 1950 and 1958. On this basis, it finds no clear

evidence that records in which the related rights have expired are systematically sold at lower

prices than records which are still protected.

Other studies have been considered in analysing the impact of copyright or related rights on

prices. Most of them focus on books. However, even in this category, either no overall price

difference is found between the samples of books in- or out-of-copyright, or, the impact of

copyright on the price is extremely model-dependant and therefore the estimates obtained

cannot be seen as very robust. Given the lack of widely accepted models and the length of the

time span, it is fair to say that there is no clear evidence that prices will increase due to term

extension.

EN 6 EN

In addition, overall, the extended term should have a positive impact on consumer choice and

cultural diversity. In the long run, this is because a term extension will benefit cultural

diversity by ensuring the availability of resources to fund and develop new talent. In the short

to medium term, a term extension provides record companies with an incentive to digitise and

market their back catalogue of old recordings. It is already clear that internet distribution

offers unique opportunities to market an unprecedented quantity of sound recordings.

EN 7 EN

International dimension

The IA also looked at the trade implications of a longer term of protection and provisionally

concludes that most of the additional revenue collected in an extended term would stay in

Europe and benefit European performers. This is good for promoting Europe's performers

and the cultural vibrancy of European sound recordings.

EN 8 EN

1. PROCEDURAL ISSUES AND CONSULTATION OF INTERESTED PARTIES

A Commission Staff Working Paper on the review of the EC legal framework in the field of

copyright and related rights1 was published on 19 July 2004. Interested parties were invited to

submit their comments by 31 October 2004. Full information can be found at the following

link to the DG MARKT copyright unit web page set aside specifically for this exercise:

http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/review/consultation_en.htm. Even though all

copyright issues were open for comment, of the 139 contributions received, 76 position papers

commented on Directive 93/98/EC harmonising the term of protection of copyright and

certain related rights2. More specifically, 36 organisations and stakeholders were in favour of

extending the protection of related rights (performers and record producers) while 29

indicated that they were against any extension. Table 1A indicating the summary of these

submissions can be found in the Annex, section 1.

In 2005, the Commission contracted out a study entitled "The recasting of copyright for the

knowledge economy". Part of this study was to consider the term of protection for performers,

record companies and broadcasters in Europe in general and whether these related rights

holders are at a disadvantage when compared to those in the USA and other major economic

competitors (see Annex, section 4). The study was completed in December 2006 and

published on the Commission's web site on January 2007.3 During 2006-2007, Commission

services had meetings with a variety of stakeholders on a bilateral basis4 to discuss relevant

issues in more detail. A questionnaire was prepared by the Commission and distributed to

major stakeholders in the framework of these bilateral discussions. More or less detailed

responses were received from performers' associations and the recording industry.5 It was not

possible to establish a steering-group on the subject of this impact assessment.

The Commission also analysed other independent studies such as the "Gowers Review of

Intellectual Property" (2006) in the UK, "The Economy of Culture in Europe" (2006), by

Kern European Affairs, "Performers' Rights in European Legislation: Situation and Elements

for Improvement" (2007), by AEPO-ARTIS, "What are the Consequences of the EU

extending Copyright Length for Sound Recordings" (2006), by Liebowitz, "The Impact of

Copyright Extension for Sound Recordings in the UK" (2006), by Price Waterhouse Coopers,

"Review of the Economic Evidence Relating to an Extension of the Term of Copyright in

Sound Recordings" (2006), by the Centre for IP and Information Law.

1 SEC(2004) 995 of 19 July 2004.

2 Directive 93/98/EEC has been superseded by a codified version (Directive 2006/116/EC of 12

December 2006 on the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights, OJ L372 of

27.12.2006, p.12 (hereafter referred to as the "Term Directive"). This codified version did not include

any substantive changes.

3 http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/studies/etd2005imd195recast_report_2006.pdf

4 Telecom Italia/ETNO, FIM/FIA, IFPI, PPL, MPA, GIART, Eurocopya/Eurocinema, Naxos, EMI, AER,

EBU, BEUC, British Library, ACT

5 AEPO, BEUC, IFPI, Naxos.

EN 9 EN

2. PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE IAB

A draft version of the impact assessment was discussed before the Impact Assessment Board

(IAB) on 2 April 2008. In the course of this meeting the IAB raised a series of issues that DG

MARKT undertook to address. In particular, the IAB asked for clarification on:

– The relationship between the EU acquis and international conventions governing the field

of performers and producers rights;

– The scope of the intended initiative, especially as the impact assessment distinguishes

between performers and producers in the musical and the audiovisual sectors; and

– The events that triggered the initiative.

2.1. International conventions and the EU acquis

The impetus behind the initiative can best be explained against the backdrop of international

conventions. These also explain the distinction between performers and producers in the

musical and audiovisual fields.

Performers, whether in the musical or in the audiovisual field, are not covered by the 1886

Berne Convention on Literary and Artistic Works. Although several proposals were made to

include performers and performances within the scope of the Berne Convention at later

revision conferences, none of these proposals found sufficient support. The need for

protection of performers and record producers was only perceived as imminent with the

proliferation of phonographic technology and the subsequent introduction of sound recordings

and broadcasting. In these circumstances, performers and producers were first granted

protection against a variety of unauthorised acts in the 1961 Rome Convention. Both groups

of rightholders were considered jointly under the Convention not because of the similar nature

of their rights, but because of the development, in the 1950s, of commercial markets for sound

recordings. Most significantly, to compensate both rightholders for the relatively narrow

scope of their exclusive rights (there is no right governing the communication of

performances to the public), the 1961 Rome Conventions provides both groups of rightholders

with a right to receive 'single equitable remuneration' for the broadcasting or communication

to the public of a commercially published phonogram. Significantly, this important claim to

equitable remuneration only covers the broadcasting or public communication of a

phonogram and would thus exclude audiovisual performers or film producers from its scope.

It is also relevant to note that film producers, based on Article 14bis of the Berne Convention,

already enjoy a far better status than the producers of sound recordings. By virtue of this

Article, a film producer can either be granted co-ownership in the copyright that applies to

authors (like in the UK or Ireland) or benefit from a variety of statutory assignments (Italy,

Austria) or presumptions of copyright ownership in their favour (Belgium, France, Germany,

Luxembourg, the Netherlands or Spain). Ownership of copyright, of course, entitles film

producers to a copyright term that spans the life of the film authors, plus seventy years. In

respect of the term of protection, the situations of film and phonogram producers thus differ

fundamentally.

The 1996 WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) upgraded musical performers

and producers rights by introducing a new right of 'making available' that is tailored

essentially to cover digital downloads offered on an individualised basis. The 1996 WPPT

EN 10 EN

does not cover audiovisual performances or productions. Indeed, a 2000 conference at WIPO

aimed at introducing a WIPO Audiovisual Performances Treaty ended in failure as

delegations were unable to agree on provisions governing the transfer of rights of performers

to film producers.

The EU acquis essentially mirrors the above mentioned international conventions. Like the

Rome Convention, the acquis only provides for equitable remuneration in case of

broadcasting or communication to the public of a commercial sound recording (cf. Article

8(2) of Directive 2006/115) and there are no comparable provisions governing audiovisual

performances. Audiovisual performances do, however, benefit from the reproduction right

now contained in Article 2 of Directive 2001/29 and would thus also appear eligible for levies

that apply in case of private reproductions.

2.2. The scope of the intended initiative

The impact assessment focuses not only on the term of protection that would apply to

performers' and producers' exclusive rights but also on the (identical) term that governs a

series of highly relevant 'secondary' remuneration claims. Special emphasis is put on the claim

to receive equitable remuneration for broadcasting and communication to the public it is not

transferred to producers but administered by performers' collecting societies directly. As this

claim does not apply to audiovisual productions, the analysis of the impacts of term expiry is

limited to musical performances and phonograms.

In addition, as mentioned above, the term applicable to phonogram producers differs from that

applicable to film producers. As the latter usually enjoy copyright ownership, a statutory

assignment of the author's rights or at least a presumption of such a transfer, copyright for

film producers essentially lasts for seventy years after the death of the last surviving author

while the phonogram producers' right expires 50 years after the recording was made or

published. This, again, explains why the impact assessment deals with phonogram producers

only.

2.3. Events triggering the term initiative

Since promulgation of the 2004 Staff Working Paper, a series of studies on the social and

economic situation of the European performing artist were conducted and published. Most

notably, a study by AEPO ARTIS 'Performers Rights in European Legislation: Situation and

Elements for Improvement' have brought the social and economic difficulties of performers to

the fore. This study has also revealed the crucial importance that secondary remuneration

schemes play in rewarding the creative efforts of performers. For many performers, equitable

remuneration collected for broadcasting and communication to the public is a more important

source of revenue than the exercise of their exclusive rights, which are often transferred to the

producers. For example, 57% of monies collected by performers collecting societies stem

from equitable remuneration for broadcasting and communication to the public. A term

extension to cover at least the life of a performer would thus benefit individual performers

primarily by extending their eligibility to receive a share of equitable remuneration payments.

None of these issues had been fully considered in the 2004 Staff Working Paper.

EN 11 EN

3. INTRODUCTION

This impact assessment will cover the issue of performers' and record producers' rights under

the Community acquis. Only performers whose performances are included in a sound

recording are considered. Audio-visual performers and producers are not considered, as their

economic and legal situation is significantly different. This concerns their legal status as well

as the assignment and transfers of their rights. Film producers, in certain Member States, are

considered as co-authors of a film6 while in others they are considered as proprietors of socalled

'related' rights7. Moreover, contracts in the film industry differ from those in music,

especially in respect of presumptions of rights transfer to the producer8.

3.1. Who are performers?

A performer is a person who performs or executes a work such as a piece of music, an opera,

a play or a film. "Actors, singers, musicians, dancers, and other persons who act, sing, deliver,

declaim, play in, or otherwise perform literary or artistic works" are all performers9.

The status and income of performers varies considerably. A small number of performers such

as "featured artists" (whose name appears on the album credits) achieve fame and fortune or

"superstardom". At the other end of the spectrum, most performers are less well-known and

cannot earn a living from their creative activities. They include session musicians (whose

names do not appear on the album credits) who are employed inter alia to provide

background music and performers who are aspiring to a career as featured artists.

It is difficult to provide a precise estimate of the number of performers in the EU.

Membership in performers' collecting societies or artists unions or the number of artists active

in musical education only provide rough proxies. In 2004, the total number of members of

performers' collecting societies amounted to nearly 40000010.

3.2. Who are record producers?

Record producers create sound recordings (i.e. the "fixation" of a performance)11 and ensure

their subsequent promotion and marketing, distribution to retail outlets and sale to

consumers/end users. Record producers provide the financial investment necessary to produce

and sell music records. They also invest in discovering and developing performers both

commercially and artistically. As it is estimated that only 1 in 8 CDs is profitable, the

investments of record producers in the music industry are regarded as risky.

The recording industry is dominated by a few large companies (often integrated into bigger

media conglomerates), which are also known as "the majors": Universal Music Group, Sony

6 For instance in the U.K., under section 9(2)(ab) of the 1988 Copyright Patent and Designs Act.

7 E.g. in France, see Article L.215-1 Intellectual Property Code.

8 See, at international level, Article 14bis Berne Convention, and at Community level, Article 2(5)-(7) of

the Rental and Lending Directive. National laws contain more detailed provisions regarding transfer of

rights and the status of film producers.

9 See Article 3 of the Rome Convention for the protection of performers, producers of phonograms and

broadcasting organisations).

10 Based on AEPO-ARTIS data complemented by Commission's own research.

11 See Article 3 (c) of the Rome Convention for the protection of performers, producers of phonograms

and broadcasting organisations (the first international convention which provided performers with

exclusive rights).

EN 12 EN

BMG Music Entertainment, EMI group and the Warner Music Group, which control about

80% of the recorded music sales12. The remainder of the market belongs to a myriad of small

and medium-sized cultural entrepreneurs, the so-called independent record companies or

"indies"13. Some recent successful bands are signed up to independent labels (Franz Ferdinand

with Domino Records founded in 1993 and Kaiser Chiefs with B-Unique founded in 2004)14.

The independent record companies are more vulnerable financially than the music majors and

have more difficulty accessing financing to keep them afloat between successes.

3.3. How are record producers and performers protected under copyright law?

At Community level, both performers and record producers enjoy a similar set of so-called

'related' rights in their records and recorded performances. These rights are referred to as

related rights to distinguish them from authors' and composers' copyright that arises in respect

of the 'works' they create. Performances and phonograms are not works.

Record producers and performers are therefore granted 'related' rights under Directives

2006/115/EC and 2001/29/EC. These related rights were harmonised at European level by

Directive 93/98/EEC (now codified by Directive 2006/116/EC) and last for 50 years from the

date of the performance or from the publication of the sound recording. This length of

protection represents the minimum international standard as provided for in the TRIPS

Agreement of 1994 and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty from 1996. In this

impact assessment the rights in performances and sound recordings will either be referred to

as rights in performances (held by performing artists) or rights in sound recordings (held by

the record producers) or collectively as 'related' rights.

Related rights can either be exclusive rights or rights to receive equitable remuneration for the

commercial use of performances and sound recordings. Performers' exclusive rights (such as

the right of reproduction, distribution, rental and 'making available' online) are usually

transferred to the producer of the sound recording. The latter licenses the exclusive rights to

end users, such as broadcasters, rental shops or online music shops. Rights to receive

equitable remuneration are not transferred to producers but are exercised by performers

themselves through their collecting societies. Such claims for equitable remuneration are

collected from broadcasters, a series of public venues (bars, hotels, shopping arcades, etc.).

Compensation for private copying is also administered by collecting societies and paid by a

variety of ICT industries15.

4. PROBLEM DEFINITION

4.1. What is the problem?

If the present term of protection were maintained for performers, some 7000 performers, in

the UK alone, over the next ten years, would lose the single equitable remuneration they

12 IFPI –The recording industry in numbers 2007.

13 According to IFPI there are around 1000 independents active in the European music market.

14 Gowers Review 2006, page 57.

15 It should be noted that exclusive rights are almost always governed by individual contracts between the

performer and the producer of the sound recording while remuneration claims are administered by

collecting societies.

EN 13 EN

receive for the broadcasting and communication to the public of their performances16. It is

expected that a corresponding number would be affected in the other big Member States and a

proportionally lower number would be affected in the smaller Member States.

Expiry of related rights would not appear as urgent with respect to famous superstars, featured

artists like Sir Cliff Richards or the Beatles. But an expiry of related rights would be a serious

blow to the thousands of anonymous session musicians, i.e., musicians hired for one recording

only and not members of a group, who contributed to sound recordings in the late fifties and

sixties. They will no longer get single equitable remuneration for broadcasting and

communication to the public, private copying levies and equitable remuneration for the

transfer of the performers' rental right. They will find it more difficult to devote time to their

artistic career, as they generally respond to small increase in revenues, such as provided by

the income flows mentioned above, by devoting more time to their creative activities. They

will also lose protection just when online retailing promises a new source of revenue.

Single equitable remuneration is important, especially with respect to early performances.

Many performers or singers start their career in their early 20's, if not earlier. That means that

the current 50 year protection ends when they will be in their 70's. Once protection has ended,

performers no longer receive any income from these sound recordings. For session musicians

and lesser known artists that means that income from those sound recordings stops when

performers are at the most vulnerable period of their lives (retirement).

Record companies argue that their main problem is a decrease in revenues following large

scale piracy over the internet. They also point out that record producers in the USA and other

countries in the world enjoy a much longer term of protection. This, they argue, will divert

creative efforts away from Europe and toward those markets that grant longer periods of

protection and thus income. They point to a tendency for record producers to orient their

productions to cater to the taste of those jurisdictions where most revenue could be achieved.

The underlying problems of performers and record producers will be considered separately.

4.2. What are the underlying drivers behind these problems for performers

4.2.1. The treatment of performers, in comparison with authors, is unfair

The term of protection for performers is much shorter than that for authors.

Their moral rights, which entitle them to restrict objectionable alterations to their

performances, are weaker than those of authors.

Performers are essential contributors to the cultural industries. They are often the necessary

intermediary between the author and the public. For instance, very few people can derive the

same enjoyment from reading sheet music as from listening to a sound recording. The

contribution of performers is socially accepted and recognised by the public, as the popularity

and success of well known performers suggests.

However, performers are concerned about the disparities that exist in relation to the length of

protection they currently enjoy as compared to that given to authors. Authors are protected for

70 years after their death whereas performers are only protected for 50 years from the

16 UK House of Commons Committee for Culture, Media and Sport, May 2007, p. 78.

EN 14 EN

performance or when their performance is published or communicated to the public via a CD

or DVD, or a radio or TV broadcast, for example. Performers believe that their creative input

is as important as that of the author of the work17. In view of the development and importance

of music over the past few decades, performers feel that the value of their contribution to the

success of a piece of music is at least equal to, and sometimes even more identifiable, than

that of the authors (i.e. the composer, the lyricist, the photographer/art designer of the cover of

the compact disc, the writer of the sleeve notes). It could seem unfair that "the graphic artist

who designs the artwork on a CD cover is protected for longer than the singer or musician

who performs on the recording"18.

The following examples illustrate the different terms of protection between performers and

authors:

In addition, the moral rights of performers are weaker than the moral rights of authors. At

international level, the moral rights of performers are not recognised under the 1961 Rome

Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting

Organisations, but are recognised under Art 5 of the 1996 WIPO Performances and

Phonograms Treaty (WPPT)19. However, the level of protection under Article 5 WPPT is in

some respects lower than that afforded to authors under Article 6bis of the Berne Convention

for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. While authors are protected against "other

derogatory action in relation to the said work", performers can only object to "other

modifications". The term "derogatory action" used in the Berne Convention allows authors to

restrict objectionable uses of their performance (for instance use in pornographic material20,

use in advertising or in a political context which is contrary to the performers' opinion or

beliefs) which do not imply a "modification" of the work but simply its use in an

objectionable context.

This discrepancy between the moral rights of authors and performers is also reflected in

national laws. In addition, the duration of moral rights varies. In some countries, these last as

long as economic rights, while in others they are perpetual21. While in any case authors are

17 "I put as much creative effort into my performances as I do into my compositions, so there does not

appear to be any justification for this big discrepancy", letter from Udo Jürgens to Commissioner

McCreevy, 12 July 2007. Mr. Jürgens is both an author and performer.

18 Submission from the Irish Recorded Music Association to Michael Ahern, Minister for Innovation

Policy in Ireland, November 2007.

19 Art 5 (1) of the WIPO Performers and Phonograms Treaty 1996 provides that : "Independently of a

performer's economic rights, and even after the transfer of those rights, the performer shall, as regards

his live aural performances or performances fixed in phonograms, have the right to claim to be

identified as the performer of his performances, except where omission is dictated by the manner of the

use of the performance, and to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his

performances that would be prejudicial to his reputation". The Treaty is in force in some, but not all,

Member States, and has been signed but not yet ratified by the EC.

20 Sam Ricketson, "The Berne Convention: 1886-1986", p. 469, 1987.

21 For example the moral rights of performers are perpetual in France and Romania, protected 50 years

after death in Portugal and the Netherlands, life or 25 years after the performance if longer in Germany.

EN 15 EN

protected during their lifetime and beyond, this is not the case for performers. In the UK for

instance, their moral rights will only be protected for 50 years from the first publication of the

fixation of their performance22. They will thus be exposed to distortions or mutilations of their

performances during their lifetime at least in respect of their early performances.

4.2.2. Performers create young and live longer: the performers' age gap

Performers suffer from an "income gap" towards the end of their life

Performers have no control of their performances after the 50 years.

Protection for performers stands at 50 years from the event that triggers protection (the

performance or the publication or communication to the public of a recording of the

performance). An increasing number of performing artists are seeing their performances

falling into the public domain during their lifetimes23. PPL, the UK collecting society that

represents performers has indicated24 that sound recordings from 1955 to 1965 will involve

7000 performers who will stop receiving royalties or equitable remuneration from 2005

onwards as the sound recordings reach the 50 year protection cut off date.

Current average life expectancy stands at 75.1 years for men and 81.2 years for women,25

although it is not unusual for persons to live well into their 80's and 90's. On average, most

performing artists or singers start their career in their early 20's which means that the current

50 year protection ends when they are in their 70's. For instance, the singer/songwriter Elton

John signed his first contract aged 2026. Once protection has ended, performers no longer have

a say in how their performances are used nor do they receive any further remuneration from

the commercial exploitation of their performances. In fact, income from those recordings

stops when performers are at the most vulnerable period of their lives.

4.2.3. Most performers do not earn a living from their artistic work

Performers' earnings are on average low and distribution of income is highly uneven.

Performers are under-employed and supplement their income with part time jobs

The current employment status and conditions for the average performer are not necessarily

very rewarding. Apparently, only famous performers make a living from their profession. For

instance, in the UK, in 2001, only 5% of performers earned over £10000 annually. Moreover,

between 77 and 89.5% of all income distributed to performers goes to the top 20% of earning

See "Study contract concerning moral rights in the context of the exploitation of works through digital

technology", (April 2000), available at http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/studies/

etd1999b53000e28_en.pdf.

22 Section 205I — (1) of the 1988 Copyright Designs and Patents Acts.

23 The market for recorded music started in the 1950's and really blossomed in the 60's and 70's (and has

increased ever since) so the number of musical works that will be falling into the public domain after

the 50 year protection period will show a significant increase from 2010 onwards.

24 In an interview on 31/3/2006 in premises of DG MARKT Copyright unit.

25 Eurostat, Life expectancy at birth.

26 See Elton John and Others v. Richard Leon James [1991] FSR 397, High Court decision of 29th

November 1985. Other examples include Irish performer Bono, from U2 (first record released when he

was 17), French singer Johnny Halliday (first record released when he was 17), Greek singer George

Michael (first record released when he was 19), etc.

EN 16 EN

performers27. Economists have shown that the great discrepancies between the low earning of

the majority of little-known performers and the significant earnings of "superstar" performers

are endemic to the music industry28. However, the lesser paid performers are as essential as

superstars, as the latter are invariably plucked from a large number of lesser-known

performers.

Moreover, the social situation of performers is not very secure. It is difficult for performers to

find sufficient employment and most need other jobs to supplement their incomes29. Overall,

only 5% of performers actually make a living from their profession – all the others have to

seek parallel employment. Often, performers qualify as self employed. This limits the impact

of collective bargaining through unions30.

However, studies suggest that performers use incremental increases in income to devote more

time to their artistic careers31. This means that when performers receive additional income

from a part time activity or from royalty payments, they spend more time creating.

4.2.4. Performers lose the financial benefits of their exclusive rights when they transfer

them

Session artists transfer their exclusive rights against a lump sum payment, irrespective of the

success of the work.

The rights recognised to performers under the acquis do not result in concrete benefits for

performers.

Performers usually transfer their most economically significant exclusive rights to record

companies via contract. In most cases, individual performers have little bargaining power32.

Session musicians may be part of a union or association and benefit from collectively

bargained minimum terms. Featured artists are generally willing to accept the contract they

are offered because the reputation and exposure gained by signing with a record label gives

them the possibility of reaching a broad audience. Consequently, it is difficult for performers

to negotiate which type of contract or which level of remuneration they will obtain. Session

musicians cannot negotiate at all, they have to transfer their rights 'in perpetuity' against a one

off payment.

Contractual relations between record companies and performing artists vary greatly but

typically fall into three categories:33

27 AEPO study – "Performers' Rights in European Legislation: Situation and Elements for Improvement.",

July 2007, p. 89

28 For a survey of economic "superstar theories", see R. Towse, "Creativity, Incentive and Reward"

(2000), pp. 99-108.

29 FIM – EP Hearing 31.1.2006 and meeting in Commission offices on 16 March 2006. For example,

Luciano Pavarotti and Sting were initially teachers and Elton John worked in the packaging department

of a record company.

30 "The Collective negotiation and its actors in the culture and media sector", Research project conducted

on behalf of the Social Affairs Directorate of the European Commission, March 2005.

31 E.g. R. Towse, op.cit (for artists generally).

32 In several instances courts have intervened to cast aside excessively harsh agreements, noting in

particular the "immense inequality in bargaining power, negotiation ability, understanding and

representation" between artists and professionals of the entertainment industries", Silvertone Records

Limited v. Mountfield and Others, [1993] EMLR 152.

33 Adapted from contribution from Naxos to Commission questionnaire – May 2006.

EN 17 EN

Table 1: Types of performers' contracts

Session artists are generally paid a flat fee as their rights are bought out by the producer.

Accordingly, their remuneration does not increase if the record becomes a huge success. For

instance, the school of the children singing in the choir in Pink Floyd's hit Another brick in the

wall (part II) in The Wall (1979) album, which sold 30 million copies worldwide, was paid a

flat fee34. The 2004 film Les Choristes included the contributions of an amateur choir of

children. Although the soundtrack achieved considerable commercial success35, the choir

association was paid € 21000 for three days of work and subsequently obtained only 1% from

sales.

Featured artists' contracts usually provide for a royalty-based remuneration on terms which

are not necessarily very favourable. For example, the highly successful British

singer/songwriter Gilbert O'Sullivan was initially paid £10 a week, the equivalent of his

previous wages as a postal clerk, when retail sales of records of his music between 1970 and

1978 realised a gross figure of some £14.5 million36. More generally, depending on their fame

and bargaining power, performers usually receive net royalties of 5-15% of revenues37.

The deduction of a variety of record producers' costs from the royalty payments can also

significantly undermine the remuneration of performers. These deductions are often

formulated in technical terms and included in complex legal documents38. In practice, after

the various contractual deductions (for costs borne by the producers such as music videos,

promotion, master costs), the average percentage of royalties actually received by performers

can be lower. Moreover, as most performers' sound recordings do not sell enough copies for

34 School children were "hired" and the school received a lump sum payment of £1000, without any

royalty payments. The children received no remuneration other than a concert ticket, a single and an

album each. They were denied the right to participate in the video of the album on the ground that they

did not have card from "Equity", a UK union of performers. However, at that time performers enjoyed

very limited protection in the UK. After the law was revised, an agent sought to relocate the choir

performers and initiated legal proceedings to obtain payment. See The Times, November 27 2004,

"Payout after Pink Floyd leaves them kids alone", available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/

uk/article395989.ece and BBC News Magazine, 2 October 2007, "Just another brick in the Wall",

available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7021797.stm .

35 According to the parents of some choir boys, the soundtrack generated €20 million. Some parents

initiated legal proceedings against the producer, as the children had received no remuneration at all for

their performance.

36 See O'Sullivan v Management Agency and Music Ltd. [1985] Q.B. 428 at 444 before the Court of

Appeal of England and Wales. See also Financial Times, 29/30 September 2007, Life & Arts, p. 3.

37 CIPIL Study, p.36.

38 This has led courts to conclude that artists such as the "Stone Roses" rock band or Elton John were

insufficiently aware of the sometimes excessive deductions operated from the basis for calculating

royalties, see Silvertone Records Limited v. Mountfield and Others, [1993] EMLR 152.

EN 18 EN

the record company to recoup its initial investment (only 1 in 8 CDs is profitable)39, royalty

payments are often not paid out at all.

However, performers also receive revenue from other sources. In most cases, they do not

assign certain exclusive rights to record producers, such as their right to authorise use of their

performance in advertising or films (so-called 'synchronisation rights'). Moreover, they

receive income from collecting societies which administer their secondary remuneration

claims. There are three principal sources: equitable remuneration for broadcasting and

communication to the public, private copying levies and equitable remuneration for the

transfer of the performers' rental right. All of these sources are commonly referred to as

'secondary' sources of income and performers receive them directly.

4.3. What are the underlying drivers behind these problems for record producers?

4.3.1. Loss of revenue for record producers

Declining sales and profits of record producers.

Loss of revenue through piracy.

The EU recorded music industry has indicated a slump in their activities: sales of music CDs

peaked in 2000 and have been falling at an average rate of 6% ever since40. Estimates for the

future show a continued decrease in physical album sales from $12.1bn in 2006 to $10.3bn by

201041. Since 2001, the total European market for recorded music has lost 22% of its value42.

Revenues in general and profits in particular have decreased, largely due to increased piracy.

In January 2006 the music trade publication ‘Billboard’ indicated that, worldwide, there were

350 million legal downloads for the whole year of 2005, but that there were also 250 million

illegal downloads per week. The music industry indicates that approximately a third of all

CDs bought in 2005 in the world were pirated – a total of 1.2 billion CDs. EMI's expenditure

on anti-piracy and protection of IP for 2006 was in excess of £10m.

4.3.2. Loss of revenue entails a reduction in Artist & Repertoire (A&R) spending

Less profits means fewer new acts (new releases or re-releases).

Less profit means fewer artists under contract.

Less profits means less diversity, particularly in (smaller) niche markets.

Due to losses in revenue, the worldwide music industry, during the last five years, has

contracted by some 25%. For instance, Universal's total number of employees which in 2003

amounted to 12000 was down to 7600 in 200643. After an initial reduction in employees in

2006, EMI also announced a second reduction of 2000 jobs (about one third of its work force)

in January 200844. EMI indicated in addition an intention to be more selective with its artist

39 Comment from IFPI.

40 "Back to the Digital Future: The Role of Copyrights in Sustaining Creativity and Diversity in the Music

Industry", page 3, April 2006, Professor Joseph Lampel, Cass Business School, London.

41 Figures from PricewaterhouseCoopers, Financial Times, 6 July 2006.

42 Article from the Times, 14 February 2007.

43 Interview with IFPI - and John Kennedy - on 29/3/2006 in Copyright Unit of DG MARKT.

44 International Herald Tribune, The Associated Press, January 14, 2008

EN 19 EN

partnerships despite a significant reduction in its artist roster already in 200645. EMI has also

been reducing its advertising expenditure46.

Record companies claim the creative cycle will become unsustainable under the current

financial constraints. According to record producers, the music industry is a risky business

and finding and developing talented artists (A&R) is expensive47. They claim long term

earnings are required to discover and market new talent48. Record companies point out that

their A&R spending, which can be up to 20% of their turnover, is comparable to R&D

expenditure in other sectors. The comparison reveals that they invest substantially more than

the automobile and parts industrial sector (4.2% of turnover) or than the software and

computer services sector (10.4% of turnover)49. In popular music, it is estimated that only

about 10% to 12% of all recordings reach break-even or become profitable50. It has been

suggested that profitability is achieved only once sales exceed 20000 CDs51. With online

piracy, this target is increasingly difficult to achieve.

The recording industry has indicated that if their revenues are lower they will spend less on

A&R52 and discovering and promoting new talent. If these trends persist, there will be a real

risk that European based talent will not be developed nor benefit from the possibility of global

exposure offered through on-line exploitation.

The digitisation of record producers' back catalogue will also be hampered by declining

revenues. Digitisation is an ongoing process which is costly but necessary to ensure the

availability of local repertoire and cater for the needs of niche markets.

4.3.3. Cultural diversity

The term gap could lead to record companies producing sound recordings to cater to

American taste in music.

In the US, the record companies point out that the longer term of protection (95 years) gives

incentives for companies to invest in repertoire that will appeal to US markets, and thus yield

higher returns. The economic benefits of the longer terms of protection in the US should

nevertheless take into account the fact that the protection of record producers and performers

suffers more exceptions in the US53. This would offset some of the benefits of the longer term

of protection in the US. However, the US is considering the adoption of the performance

45 EMI response to Gowers Review, 2006. EMI's workforce was reduced by a third to 6,000 persons.

46 Advertising expenditure by music industry dropped by 25% in 2002 and 7% in 2003. The four music

majors are in the top 100 spenders on advertising and 2 of them are in the top 20. ("Evolution of the

recorded music industry value chain", anonymous report) p. 13.

47 Input from responses to public consultation carried out on the Commission Staff Working Paper on the

review of the EC legal framework in the field of copyright and related rights, SEC(2004) 995 of

19.7.2004.

48 "The Recording Industry in numbers", IFPI, June 2007, p. 17; EMI says it invests over 20% of revenues

on musicians and music in more than 50 countries" – 2006 Annual Report.

49 DTI figures – "The Top 800 UK and 1250 Global Companies business R & D investment", 2006.

50 Comment from Naxos on 10% and IFPI for the 12%

51 Study entitled ‘The Recasting of Copyright and related rights for the Knowledge Economy’, October

2006, Institute for Information law, University of Amsterdam, page 112.

52 International Herald Tribune, The Associated Press, January 14, 2008 and EMI contribution to Gowers

Review 2006.

53 Under US Copyright law, broadcasters as well as a number of public venues are exempted from

payments to rightholders, see Gowers Review of Intellectual Property, p. 49.

EN 20 EN

rights bill54, which would significantly increase the scope of protection in the US and increase

the appeal of the US market. Overall, record companies argue, the level of protection in the

US will divert creative efforts away from European repertoire and performers and towards

those markets that grant longer periods of protection and thus income. They point to a

tendency for record producers to orient their productions to cater to the taste of those

jurisdictions where most revenue could be achieved. Some economists point out that, over

time, this could lead to fewer incentives to produce sound recordings that appeal to the

European market55 and, in turn, to a decline in European repertoires and cultural diversity.

However, it is difficult to assess the precise extent of this problem as other parameters than

the term of protection may affect the investments of the record industry.

4.4. How would the problem evolve, all things being equal?

The impacts of 'doing nothing' are analysed in detail in section 7.1 below. Suffice it to say at

this stage that, if nothing were done, this would have individual impacts on the roughly 24500

performers who will see their term of protection expire over the course of the next decade

(24500 is 3.5 times the number of UK performers that, over the next decade, will lose

protection. This multiplier was chosen because European sales account for roughly 3.5 times

of UK sales). These performers will lose revenue from royalties and, more importantly, from

equitable remuneration for broadcasting and communication to the public. They will also lose

their entitlement to compensation for private copying.

On the other hand, there will be few, if any, positive impacts if nothing was done, as retail

prices for consumes and equitable remuneration payments for commercial users are unlikely

to be affected by the term of protection of sound recordings and performances. The only

beneficiary of the 'do nothing' scenario would be 'public domain' record companies who could

progressively re-issue sound recordings from the period between 1957 and 1967 without

paying royalties to performers. As there is little evidence that records in which the rights of

performers and producers have expired are cheaper than those still protected, the 'do nothing'

option would lead to a shift in economic income from performers to "public domain"

companies.

4.5. Does the EU have the right to act?

4.5.1. Treaty base

The Term Directive was adopted on the basis of the Articles 47(2), 55 and 95 TEC. Any

amendment to this Directive should be based on the same legal basis because the subject

matter covers the free circulation of services and the good functioning of the Internal Market.

If alternative measures not involving modification of the Directive were chosen to be the

optimal remedy to the problems identified in this IA, further consideration has to be given to

the identification of the most appropriate instrument and legal base. Operational action may

have to be taken at the level of Member States.

54 Performance Rights Act. Bill H.R. 4789, introduced on December 18, 2007, in the House of

Representatives: “To provide parity in radio performance rights under title 17, United States Code, and

for other purposes.”

55 Liebowitz (February 2006), "What are the Consequences of the EU extending Copyright Length for

Sound Recordings, report prepared for IFPI., p. 22.

EN 21 EN

4.5.2. Subsidiarity test

The length of protection of copyright and related rights has already been harmonised at EU

level and falls under the exclusive competence of the Community. However, the

harmonisation achieved in Directive 93/98/EEC was not complete in that, as provided for in

its Article 10(1), certain Member States were allowed to keep longer terms of protection

already in place before 1 July 1995, as is the case in Greece56. Options involving a term

extension (2a "life or 50 years" and 2b "95 years for performers and record producers") would

involve modifications to Directive 93/98/EEC and thus could only be achieved at Community

level.

4.6. Summary of problems

Performers are treated unfairly, in financial, legal and social terms: most performers are in a

precarious financial and social situation. In addition, from a legal perspective, the importance

of their contribution to musical creation is not appropriately recognised. They are granted

lesser moral and economic rights than authors.

The record industry faces significant challenges which undermine its competitiveness: online

piracy has lead to significant losses. The ability of the music industry to finance new talent

and adapt to dematerialised distribution is severely undermined. In addition, the longer term

of protection in the US risks undermining the production of European music.

Consumers may not have access to the widest choice of music available at reasonable prices.

The opportunities offered by online digital distribution, allowing the dissemination of local

repertoire and catering for niche markets, may not be fully seized by the music industry under

the current conditions.

5. OBJECTIVES

The following graph presents an overview of the general policy objectives, the specific

objectives and the operational objectives.

56 Article 52 of Law 2121/1993 provides for 'life or 50 years whichever is the longer' for performers. This

applies to the last surviving performer of any set of performs who are members of the same group.

EN 22 EN

Figure 1: Overview of objectives

5.1. General objectives

Promoting music production in Europe: The protection of performers and record producers

should ensure a sustainable level of creation. The European music industry should also play a

leading role in promoting European music in the world.

5.2. Specific objectives

Contribute to enhancing the welfare of performers in the music industry: Performers should

feel that they are receiving a just reward for their effort and creativity throughout their lives.

Contribute to enhancing the competitiveness of the European music industry: The music

industry should remain competitive57. It should be equipped to face the challenges of piracy

and the opportunities of dematerialised distribution. It should not be at a competitive

disadvantage, in order to preserve the place of European music.

Increase available music repertoire: the public should have access to a large and diverse

choice of music.

5.3. Operational objectives

Gradually align authors' and performers' protection: The legal protection of performers

should reflect the importance of their contribution to cultural diversity. They should not be

57 Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or

country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market. In this case, competitiveness is used

to refer in a broader sense to the economic competitiveness of the region (the EU) on global markets.

EN 23 EN

treated as second tier contributors to cultural diversity, in particular in comparison with

authors.

Incremental increase in the remuneration of performers: Ensure that performers receive an

increase in revenues from as many different sources as possible to alleviate their difficult

financial situation, especially at the end of their lives. Revenues accruing to performers and in

particular less well-known performers, who are mostly self-employed, will ensure they can

devote more time to creation and possibly make a living from their artistic activities.

Diminish the discrepancies in protection between the EU and US music markets: The legal

protection afforded to record producers should encourage investment and production of music

for the European market.

Incremental increase in A&R resources: Revenue streams derived from current repertoire

should be sufficient to finance a healthy A&R sector in the recording industry.

Ensure availability of music at reasonable prices: a balanced protection should both

encourage the creation of music and ensure that as wide a public as possible can access it.

Encourage the digitisation of back catalogue: the widest possible choice should be offered to

consumers, including niche and local repertoire.

6. POLICY OPTIONS

Some of the options considered would be complementary to options involving a term

extension. Apart from options 2a and 2b, other combinations of options are not mutually

exclusive.

Table 2: Overview of Options

6.1. The wait and see option

The first option is to leave the copyright acquis as it is.

6.2. Options related to an extension of the term of protection

The second option is to extend the term of protection. There are various possibilities (suboptions)

for such an extension, all of which would require an amendment to the Term

Directive, in particular to Article 3. There could be three options in the application in time of

a term extension: it could apply only to new recordings, be 'partially' retroactive (applying to

all recordings which are currently sill protected) or be fully retroactive (applying to all

recordings, including those in which the rights of performers and producers have expired).

EN 24 EN

Out of these three options, which are analysed in the Annex (section 2), the preferable option

is to extend the term with 'partial' retroactive effect. This means that only recordings which

are still protected at a certain date, such as the implementation date of the Directive, will

benefit from the term extension. It is the simplest option to apply and brings immediate

benefit to many right holders. It is also in line with previous practice, such as Directive

2006/115 (rental and lending Directive) and Directive 2001/29 (copyright in the information

society).

6.2.1. Amend the term of protection for performers only to "life or 50 years"

Sub-option 2a amends the term of protection for performers only to "life or 50 years",

whichever is the longer. This option ensures that the performer enjoys protection during

his/her entire life. It would apply to the performers' exclusive rights and to the variety of

'secondary' remuneration or compensation claims that a performer enjoys under the acquis

(see section 3.3 above).

6.2.2. Extend the term of protection for performers and record producers from 50 to 95

years

Under sub-option 2b the term of protection is extended from 50 to 95 years for performers

and record companies.58 This option ensures equivalence with the term of protection in the

US.

6.3. Complementary options not involving an extension of the term of protection but

which improve the situation of performers

The third option comprises various possibilities which could improve the financial situation

and moral rights of performers without necessarily extending the term of protection. These

measures could be used either as alternatives to a term extension or as complementary

measures to an extension of the term of protection for performers.

6.3.1. Create an 'unwaivable right to equitable remuneration' for performers who transfer

their rights to record companies

This impact assessment previously describes how performers contractually transfer their

exclusive rights (including their reproduction, distribution and making available rights) to

record labels. As a result, performers are often deprived of a fair share of the revenues

generated from the exploitation of their performances. To address this issue in relation to the

rental right, Article 4 of Directive 2006/115 provides for an unwaivable right to

remuneration to which authors and performers remain entitled even after having transferred

their rental right to a producer. In view of the fact that performers do not enjoy any share in

the money collected by record producers for sales of music on the internet, one option to

improve the social situation of performing artists would thus be an amendment to extend the

scope of Article 4 of the Rental and Lending Directive to also cover the situation when the

making available right is transferred. The remuneration right would have to be administered

by a collecting society.

58 Concretely, one would have to substitute the number '50' by '95' in the respective paragraphs in Article

3 of Directive 2006/116/EC.

EN 25 EN

The impact assessment identifies three possible approaches in respect to the issue of who

should pay the equitable remuneration to performers. It could be paid by a number of

stakeholders: (1) equitable remuneration could be paid by users and distributors. Such

payment will be likely to occur through a collecting society, because performers are not

contractually linked to distributors; (2) equitable remuneration could be paid by record

producers and (3) it could be left to interested parties to decide who pays the equitable

remuneration to performers.

For example, Article 108 of the Spanish IP Code stipulates that, where a performer has

transferred his exclusive 'making available' right, he retains an unwaivable claim to equitable

remuneration. The remuneration has to be paid by whoever makes the fixation of his

performance available, usually online music providers, and the claim is exercised against

them by collecting societies. Since this provision was only introduced in July 2006, collecting

societies have not yet collected any monies under the new provisions. It is thus too early to

say whether this scheme of collectively administered performers' remuneration will work in

practice.

It is, at this stage, also hard to quantify the financial benefit that would arise from a

remuneration claim for the making available of performances online. A study conducted by

the French collecting society ADAMI suggests that a performer receives between € 0.03 and

0.04 for a download sold at € 0.9959, and that online music yielded € 120 million in revenues

in the EU in 200460. This implies that the new claim would yield roughly between € 3.6

million and 4.8 million per year. This compares to approximately €351 million collected in

2005 by performers' collecting societies' from single equitable remuneration, private copying

levies and the rental right61. Given the fast pace of change in the online music market, which

is far from mature, it is also difficult to predict how such figures would evolve in time.

Moreover, the uncertainties surrounding the issue of who should pay this 'equitable

remuneration' also contribute to the difficulties in quantifying its impact. Should equitable

remuneration be paid by the record producers, the latter would likely shift the overall payment

burden to performers by reducing royalty payments and the buy-out fees to session musicians.

On the other hand, if payment of equitable remuneration were made incumbent on online

retailers or operators of similar online services, such a measure might well complicate the

administration of online rights. Indeed, online retailers, in order to offer legitimate services,

would now have to clear another right with a collecting society representing performers.

Finally, if it were left open to interested parties to decide who should pay the claim for

'equitable remuneration', as is the case under Belgian law, the entire option might well

become moot.

In light of the uncertainties surrounding the practical administration of the claim for equitable

remuneration, this option appears untimely, as further study would be required to assess its

impact. While in the future this option might well be introduced to enhance performers

participation in revenue generated online, it cannot be considered at this stage.

59 ADAMI study, 'Filière de la musique enregistrée : quels sont les véritables revenus des artistes

interprètes?' (April 2006), p.27.

60 Study for the European Commission, 'Interactive content and convergence' (2007), p. 42 (source:

Screen Digest).

61 KEA Study, 'The collective management of rights in Europe' (2006), p. 33.

EN 26 EN

6.3.2. Moral rights of performers

Several Member States recognise the moral rights of performers but to a lesser extent than

they recognise the rights of authors. The moral rights of performers could be strengthened.

The scope of their moral rights could be harmonised to include a right to restrict derogatory

uses of their performances. However, since moral rights have not been harmonised at

Community level, it would be preferable that Member States strengthen the protection of

moral rights under their national laws.

6.3.3. A "use it or lose it" provision for performers' rights

A safety net protecting performers against practices which deprive them of the benefits of a

term extension could be promoted. This could take the form of a so-called "use it or lose it"

provision. 'Use it or lose it' provisions are currently in force in some EU Member States for

authors' rights62 and in some cases for performers63. We have learnt from our discussions with

stakeholders that some independent record companies transfer rights back to the performer if

they are not selling his record any more64.

The effect of a use it or lose it provision would be to allow the performer to move to another

record company or exploit a recording himself if the producer does not exploit it. This

provision would also apply should the record company decide to only use certain channels of

distribution (like sales of CDs) but not others (like online sales). In order for a use it or lose it

clause to achieve this result, however, it must also be clear that the producer cannot use his

exclusive right in the recording to oppose the new exploitation or ask for remuneration which

would render the exploitation of the performance not viable economically.

"Use it or lose it" provisions could be made mandatory, in order to ensure that all performers

benefit from them. However, as they must articulate with existing national copyright and

contract legislation of the Member States, sufficient flexibility should be allowed for the

transposition of such a provision.

6.3.4. Create a fund for session musicians

In order to ensure that the benefit of term extension would accrue to performing artists,

especially session musicians that have transferred their related right against a one off

payment, the extension of protection for record companies should be accompanied by a

payment of 20% of the increased revenues the record companies will enjoy into a fund, set up

in each record company, dedicated to improving the situation of performers, including session

musicians whose performances are used in recordings. The basis for calculating this

percentage would comprise producers' revenue (and not profit) from: (1) the sale of sound

recordings and (2) online distribution of sound recordings65.

62 Austria, Belgium, Germany, Luxemburg, Nordic Countries, Portugal and Spain.

63 Denmark (articles and of the Danish Copyright Act) and Germany (articles 41 and 79(2) of the German

Copyright Act).

64 Comment from the Chairman of IMPALA (the independent music label association) on 5 December

2007.

65 In order to have the financial volume necessary to ensure real benefits for session musicians, this IA

proposes that the fund should reserve at least 20% of the annual revenue that accrues during the

extended term. This fund should be administered by each record company in close cooperation with

performers and their representatives. Such an obligation would be in line with an earlier commitment by

EN 27 EN

7. ANALYSIS OF IMPACTS

This section looks at the economic and social impacts resulting from the options presented

above. For purposes of better presentation such impacts are presented according to the group

of stakeholders that is affected by the option in question. Environmental impacts are neglected

since they are marginal. If there is no obvious impact on one group of market players, they are

not necessarily mentioned in the impact analysis.

7.1. Doing nothing

7.1.1. Impact on performers

Over the next 10 years performers and records producers will lose their neighbouring rights

over an increasing amount of recorded music (those recorded and released between 1957 and

1967). It is estimated that around 7000 performers, in the UK alone, will lose all of their

airplay and reproduction-related payments (e.g., the 'single equitable remuneration' for

broadcasting and any communication to the public and compensation for private copying)

over the next ten years66. This concerns the thousands of anonymous session musicians who

contributed to recordings in the late fifties and sixties. Their income will stop when they are at

the most vulnerable period of their lives, i.e., as they are approaching retirement.

For those individual performers affected by the expiry of their term, this would entail an

annual loss of between € 181 and € 3663 in equitable remuneration payments that they

currently receive67.

Moreover, in view of the current and suggested future steady increase in digital sales many

older sound recordings get a second life in the digital format. Performers whose performances

fall into the public domain will lose out on immediate and future revenues from the digital

exploitation of recordings. Furthermore, income from primary exploitation, such as sound

recording sales may stop. Only the big names will enjoy financial security and good

bargaining power with record companies.

The number of performers able to sustain a long term livelihood from their performances

would perhaps decrease, and performers would not be able to devote as much time to their

artistic career. Over time, the problem will worsen as the rights of performers and record

producer will expire in an increasing numbers of recordings. Finally, in several Member

States performers would also not be in a position to restrict objectionable uses of their

performances.

the sound recording industry and the musicians' union FIM. In a joint letter of 5 June 2007 addressed to

Commissioner McCreevy, IFPI, on behalf of the international sound recording industry and FIM, on

behalf of musicians unions from several countries, stated as follows: "FIM and IFPI are working

together to find ways to ensure that all performers benefit financially from any extension of term of

protection and that their older recordings can be made available to the public". The Commission might

undertake to monitor how this fund develops and how many session musicians benefit from it.

66 UK House of Commons Committee for Culture, Media and Sport, May 2007.

67 According to the AEPO study ('Performers' Rights in European Legislation: Situation and Elements for

Improvements', July 2007), collecting societies in the EU, in 2005, collected € 351 million and

distributed this sum to around 400000 performers. This revenue is not evenly distributed. 77-90% of the

revenue is distributed to 20% of the performers. On average € 293 million is distributed to 80000

performers, whereas € 58 million is distributed to 320000 performers. The average annual income per

performer that is attributable to secondary remuneration claims therefore ranges between € 181 and €

3663 per year.

EN 28 EN

7.1.2. Impact on record producers

Record companies will continue to suffer from piracy and spend a lot of money on anti-piracy

law suits. The financial situation of record producers would not improve. While popular

recordings from the 50's and 60's are still in demand and the record company that holds the

master copy would still derive revenue from their exploitation, this revenue stream might now

be subject to competition from re-releases by public domain companies. Indeed, an increasing

number of popular performances (from the golden 1950s and 1960s) will fall into the public

domain and the revenue from these recordings will no longer be available to fund the

production and marketing of new recordings (see below).

Record producers would still receive remuneration for 'secondary' forms of exploitation, in

particular their share of the 'single equitable remuneration' for broadcasting and

communication to the public of music. These revenues would not be significantly affected by

some records falling out of protection. According to KEA, they amounted to € 293 million in

200468.

7.1.3. Impact on broadcasters and public venues where music is played

While the rights of performers and record producers will expire in certain recordings, this

would not affect the fees paid by broadcasters and public venues for using music. Such fees

are not calculated on a 'per track' basis and the amount of recordings which are no longer

protected by related rights is thus not relevant to establishing the fee.

Broadcasters (TV and Radio) pay the 'equitable remuneration' due to performers and record

producers via a variety of payments, all of which are not linked to the number of

performances and sound recordings protected by copyright. For instance, commercial TV

broadcasters pay a percentage of their total revenue (France), net broadcasting revenue (UK),

or advertising (Germany). In Germany, an additional graduation is made according to the

percentage of music that is contained in the broadcast. Cable re-transmitters, for example, in

Germany, pay on the basis of their subscription income. In addition, equitable remuneration

by broadcasters represents a relatively small share of their revenues. According to IFPI

estimates, only 1% of broadcaster's total revenue is paid to rightholders in 'equitable

remuneration'.

Equally, public venues where music is played – bars, hairdressers, fitness studios or doctors –

do not pay on a 'per track' basis. These establishments pay according to seating capacity (UK,

hairdressers), square meters (Germany, bars, hotels, hairdressers, UK, public houses, pubs,

restaurants), revenue (France, discothèques), on the basis of the number of instructors (UK,

gyms). In Germany and France, the revenue for related rights is sometimes calculated as a

percentage of the revenue charged for authors. Again, those payments are not influenced by

the number of performances or sound recordings that are in copyright.

7.1.4. Impact on public domain record labels

By doing nothing, public domain record companies would continue to profit from a larger

share of sound recordings, from late fifties and sixties, which would no longer be protected by

the rights of performers and record producers.

68 KEA, 'The Collective Management of Rights in Europe: The Quest for Efficiency' (July 2006).

EN 29 EN

7.1.5. Impact on consumers

There is no clear empirical evidence that price difference between sound recordings that are

in- or out-of copyright would be significant. This would imply that public domain companies

would not necessarily sell sound recordings at prices lower than those applied to protected

recordings marketed by recording companies. Thus if the term of protection were not

extended the economic rent would be shifted away from the artists and record producers to the

public domain labels. While this may be good for public domain record labels it is not

beneficial to cultural diversity, because the revenue would not be redistributed to performers

nor used for A&R.

7.1.6. Impact on cultural diversity

By doing nothing there may be a risk that a percentage of recordings phonograms in regard of

which the performer and the phonogram producer are no longer protected disappear due to a

lack of stewardship by the original record company. Once out of protection, and thus of lesser

value, there will be no incentive to 'look after' master copies of old recordings and public

domain companies will only reissue the better known and potentially profitable repertoire.

Cultural diversity might therefore suffer.

7.1.7. Impact on information society services

The impact on digital libraries and other services which organise collections of digital content

made available to the public would be neutral. While digital libraries would have to clear the

rights of producers and performers in phonograms for an additional period, it should not be

forgotten that, even after expiry of all neighbouring rights in a phonogram, the rights of the

author of the musical compositions performed and recorded must still be cleared during the

entire life of the author plus seventy years thereafter. Information society services would,

even in the absence of term extension, be obliged to clear a variety of authors' rights.

7.1.8. The international dimension

The gap in length of protection as compared to the US would not be closed. Records produced

or recorded in the EU are protected in the US for 95 years69. Investors would be more inclined

to support creators who produce sound recordings destined for the USA as a recording

popular in the US market would bring them better revenue streams for a longer period than a

recording popular in the EU.

7.2. Extend the term of protection for performers to "life or 50"

7.2.1. Impact on performers

A term extension to life or 50 years whichever is longer, will benefit all performers. The

financial benefits to performers will be positive (see further, section 7.3.1.)

Extending the term of protection would also lead to more fairness in the remuneration of all

performers: also It would lead to increased revenues for performers whose performances

experience popularity late after the initial release of the record. For example, the song 'Build

me up Buttercup', performed by 'The Foundations' and released in 1968, was used in the film

69 See 17 U.S.C. 104. The US does not apply a 'comparison of terms' with the term of protection in the EU

and thus grants the full 95 years term of protection to EU phonograms.

EN 30 EN

'There's Something About Mary' (1998). The sudden renewed interest in this tracks brought

significantly increased earnings to the performers. An extended term would ensure that

performers or their heirs do not see commercially successful exploitations free-riding their

performance and are not unfairly deprived of their share of the revenues. In addition,

performer's 'life' in the term of protection would also mark a convergence between the legal

protection of performers and authors. This is because linking a term to the life of the creator

is indirectly an acknowledgement of the personal nature of the creator's contribution.

Academics indeed point out that linking the term of protection to the life of creators

acknowledges to some degree the personal nature of their creative contribution and this is one

reason why the term of protection of an author is linked to the individual author's life. As

Mick Hucknall states: "Modern music, especially popular music, with its roots in the oral

traditions of the blues, country and folk music, lays far greater emphasis on the characteristics

of performers and performances, than on the nuances of composition or musical structure.

Given the huge increase over the past 50 years or so in the importance of sound recordings to

consumers, the law should strive to catch up and grant performers equivalent protection to

composers"70.

In those Member States that recognise some moral rights of performers only for the duration

of the economic rights, performers would also be protected during their entire lifetime.

However, in Member States which do not recognise the moral right of performers to restrict

objectionable uses of their performances, performers would remain powerless to prevent such

uses.

7.2.2. Impact on record producers

For record companies, the term extension for performers would bring a smaller financial

impact than an extension to 95 years (sub-option 2b). Even though producers' rights would

not be affected by this option, producers would benefit from additional sales revenue when

they have been assigned of the performers' exclusive rights of reproduction, distribution and

'making available' online.

7.2.3. Impact on broadcasters and public venues where music is played

There is no evidence that TV broadcasters or venues that perform sound recording in public

(bars, discotheques, hairdressers or doctors) would have to pay more for the blanket licenses

covering the 'secondary' uses they make of a performance incorporated in a sound recording71.

The Gowers report argues that, once protection in a sound recording ends: "No royalties are

due for that recording and fewer licences are required to play those songs. … Because the cost

of licences reflects the royalties payable to the copyrights, as those copyrights expire, so the

cost of licences will fall"72. This implies that broadcasters or the operators of venues where a

public performance occurs pay royalties for sound recordings on a 'per-track' basis. However,

this is not the case, as explained above (see section 7.1.3).

70 Mick Hucknall, Simply Red (UK), Speech to AIM Annual Assembly, June 2004.

71 For example, the BBC alone uses around 180,000 music items per week and spends over £230 million a

year on the acquisition of IP rights from programme contributors (actors, writers, musicians and

presenters) in BBC-produced programmes.

72 Gowers Review on Intellectual Property, December 2006, p. 56.

EN 31 EN

7.2.4. Impact on public domain labels

An extension covering life of the performer or 50 years, whichever is longer, will imply that

those record companies that republish so-called "public domain" music under their own labels

will have to wait longer for recordings to fall out of copyright. However, the term extension

would only marginally affect the availability of sound recordings phonograms in regard of

which the performer and the phonogram producer are no longer protected, because it is not

fully retroactive, and thus the recordings which are currently free of any related rights would

remain so. Moreover, performances which have fallen into the public domain are not always

freely available for public domain labels to use. This is because several Member States allow

performers to use their moral rights to restrict certain uses of performances even after the

performance has fallen into the public domain. Performers can for example restrict the rerelease

of public domain records which have not been re-mastered, object to the inclusion of

their performance in new compilations or even to a sales environment which is detrimental to

their reputation. For instance, the French performer Henri Salvador was allowed to object to a

public domain label issuing a cheap and low quality compilation of his early performances73.

The impact of the term extension would also be limited as there are very few labels that

specialise exclusively in distributing copies of records which are in the public domain. Music

is truly in the public domain once both (a) the copyright in the musical composition and (b)

the neighbouring rights of performers and record producers have expired. There are very few

labels distributing such music, and they tend to be very small, release a limited number of

recordings and employ very few people - in fact, they are usually a one-man operation74.

However, other so-called public domain labels tend to focus on releasing new recordings of

compositions which are in the public domain (essentially classical music). This is for example

the case of Naxos, a leading public domain label75. For Naxos, reissuing public domain music

is only a marginal part of its activities, and in this sense, the company acknowledges it would

benefit from an extension of the term of protection76.

Any negative effect on public domain labels would also have limited, if any, knock-on effect

on performers. Indeed public domain companies have no A&R costs and they do no discover

and develop new talent.

7.2.5. Impact on consumers

As broadcasters and other venues that owe equitable remuneration for broadcasting and any

communication to the public do not pay on a 'per track' basis, the impact of a life or 50 year

term is neutral on these operators and thus on consumer prices (e.g., licence fees to public

73 In a judgment delivered on Thursday 15 November 2007, the Paris Court of Appeal ruled in favour of

Henri Salvador by holding that a song, even if recorded more than 50 years ago and thus in the public

domain, cannot be used without restrictions. The Court of Appeal condemned the company for having

violated Henri Salvador's moral rights in his works and performances by publishing a compilation of his

songs without his prior authorisation and awarded € 85000 of damages to the artist (including € 35000

for the moral rights as a performer and € 30000 for the moral rights as an author). Paris Court of

Appeal, November 14th, 2007, SARL Jacky boy Music v Salvador, JurisData : 2007-349990.

74 Sepia Records has a catalogue of 80 titles from the 1930s to the 1950s and has one employee; Flare

Records has a catalogue of 45 titles and has one employee; Windyridge has a catalogue of 76 titles.

75 For example, in 2005, Naxos released 194 new recordings of currently unavailable works that had fallen

into the public domain.

76 As acknowledged by Naxos in its response to the Commission questionnaire on the term of protection

for sound recordings, point 61.

EN 32 EN

broadcasters). In addition, a life or 50 year term for performers only would have no impact on

retail prices as the performers' share on a retail sale is very low.

7.2.6. Impact on cultural diversity

Term extension for performers only will also lead to some financial benefit for record

producers. This might result in a limited increase in A&R investments, the development and

the promotion of new artists. Without a significant improvement of the financial situation of

the recording industry there might be less opportunities for promoting performers in both

popular and niche repertoire.

7.2.7. Impact on information society services

The impact on digital libraries and other similar services would be negative. However, it is

difficult to identify such services and to quantify to what effect they would be affected, given

that have yet to fully develop on the market.

Clearing the rights of performers would be more complex, as it would involve identifying all

performers whose performances are embodied in a sound recording. Moreover, when the term

of protection for record producers and performers is the same, all the rights can be cleared

from the record producer. This is because the producer has an assignment from all the

performers who perform on the record. If the rights of performers only are extended, it may

no longer be possible to clear the performers' rights from the producer, and the rights of each

performer would have to be cleared individually during the extended term.

7.2.8. The international dimension

A term extension for performers only would have a negligible impact on the flow of royalties

between the EU and the US. Section 7.3.7 describes in more detail why the impact on royalty

flows would not be significant.

7.2.9. Administrative burden

Extending the term of protection for performers would require an amendment to Directive

2006/116/EC and Member States would then have to amend their national laws accordingly.

This would only require Member States to adapt their existing laws covering performers. The

administrative burden incumbent on Member States would be considerably lower than

introducing a new law.

However, linking the term of protection to the lifetime of performers would raise complex

issues, essentially because co-performances, i.e. performances by a band, an orchestra or a

featured artists accompanied by session musicians77 are the rule.

This leads to an increased legislative burden for Member States. There are currently no rules

providing for the calculation of the term of protection for co-performances, because the event

which triggers the current term of protection is the publication of the performance. If the

event triggering the term of protection is the death of a performer, then, when several

77 Under international and national laws, performers enjoy rights in their performance, unlike copyright,

irrespective of its originality. It is likely that all performers would have to be taken into account to

calculate the term of protection.

EN 33 EN

performers contribute to a recording or performance, it might seem more appropriate to

calculate the term from the death of the last surviving performer, but this could also lead to

excessively long terms of protection. Alternatively, it could be provided that the contributions

of session musicians should not be taken into account to calculate the term of protection78.

However, there are currently no Community rules on this matter. The analogy with the term

of copyright protection of co-written works is of limited assistance, as there are no

Community rules on the calculation of the term of protection for co-written works.

In addition, the calculation of the term of protection from the death of the performers would

also have a negative impact on tracking costs and transaction costs. Tracking costs are the

costs of identifying the performers whose performances are embodied in a sound recording

and registering their death. In practice, it would be excessively cumbersome to identify all the

members of an orchestra, which includes more than 80 musicians, and of session musicians

which are hired on an occasional basis to perform certain parts or instruments in a recording .

Because session musicians are paid a flat fee for the assignment of their rights, the recording

companies do not keep track of them.In addition to identifying performers, the databases used

to manage performers' rights and to calculate the term of protection would then have to be

modified to include additional data on the death of all the performers in a sound recording. In

addition, for collecting societies, the cross-border administration of rights would also become

more complex and more expensive79. This could be even more complex if Member States

adopt different rules on the calculation of term for co-performances.

Finally, the term of protection of co-performed musical works would give rise to legal

uncertainty, because the term of protection would no longer depend on an easily identifiable

and certain event, namely the date of publication or broadcasting of the record. Instead, the

term of protection would depend on two factors: first, which performers are performing in the

record, and second, the date of each performer's death. Third parties exploiting a record which

they believe in the public domain would face the risk of unidentified performers bringing

claims in sound recordings and thus extending the term of protection of that record.

7.3. Extend the term of protection for performers and record producers from 50 to

95 years

7.3.1. Impact on performers

The effect on performers would be more extensive than under the 'life or 50 years' term. For

instance, Edith Piaf's interpretation of 'Non, je ne regrette rien', recorded in 1960, was used in

the film 'La Môme' (2007), and experienced renewed success. However, as Edith Piaf died in

1963, the term of protection under the "life or 50 years term" would effectively not be

extended and expire on 1st January 2011, thus leading to a shortfall after that date. Under the

95 years option, the recording would be protected until 1st January 2056.

78 This would be possible because the minimum term of protection required under international

agreements (50 years from end of the calendar year on which the performance took place, under Article

14(5)of the TRIPs agreement) would be complied with. However, it would require articulating in legal

term a difficult distinction between session musicians and other performers.

79 In effect, collecting societies often exploit each other's repertoire on their own territory and exchange

information and payments under so-called "reciprocal agreements". For a more detailed explanation of

the cross-border management of copyright, see 'Impact Assessment Reforming Cross-Border Collective

Management Of Copyright And Related Rights For Legitimate Online Music Services', SEC (2005)

1254, p.6, available at

http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/management/sec_2005_1254_en.pdf.

EN 34 EN

Performers derive revenue both from royalty income linked to the sale of sound recordings

and from secondary remuneration claims linked to the broadcasting and communication to the

public of their performances. As the overall level of revenue generated from secondary

remuneration claims should not increase because of the term extension, the impact is difficult

to determine. Individual performers would however benefit from income streams for 45

additional years.

For the sale of sound recordings, the PWC study estimates the present value of performers'

and producers' additional income in the extended term between € 44 and € 843 million in the

EU (see section 7.3.2). On this basis, an estimate of the additional annual revenue accruing to

performers from a 45 year term extension can be drawn up.

The calculation of annual revenue for an average performer is based on a variety of

assumptions that are further explained in the Annex, section 3. These assumptions concern the

distribution of financial benefits between performers and record producers (performers getting

10% and producers 90% of the revenues), the annual distribution of the overall present value

gain and the number of performers that would benefit from a term extension. On the basis of

these assumptions, the additional term of protection would generate between € 46 and € 737

per performer per year. Just as for the 'life or 50' option, one should also mention that a term

extension would be a boost for performers' and session musicians' social status. They will feel

that their artistic contribution is properly valued by society.

7.3.2. Impact on record producers

Several economic studies attempt to analyse the impact that a term extension from 50 to 95

years would have on the sales revenue of record producers. All of them come to the

conclusion that an extension would have some financial benefits; however they are not

unanimous on how large this benefit would be. This IA is based on three principal studies

submitted by stakeholders80. These studies consider the future revenue stream that record

companies can expect to receive from an additional 45 years of protection and compare this

revenue with the revenue stream generated during the initial 50 years of protection.81

80 These studies are: 1) Liebowitz (February 2006), "What are the Consequences of the EU extending

Copyright Length for Sound Recordings, report prepared for IFPI. ("Liebowitz"); 2)

PriceWaterhouseCoopers (April 2006), "The Impact of Copyright Extension for Sound Recordings in

the UK", report prepared for BPI. ("PWC"); 3) Centre for IP and Information Law (2006), "Review of

the Economic Evidence Relating to an Extension of the Term of Copyright in Sound Recordings",

report prepared for the Gower's review. ("CIPIL")

81 The estimates vary on account of the basic assumptions that each study makes with respect to three key

parameters: (1) the discount rate that is applied to determine the present value of future income that

results from term extension; (2) assumptions as to the depreciation of annual sales value with the

passage of time (so-called 'cultural depreciation'); (2) the possible loss of market share upon expiry of

the 50 year term. The choice of the discount rate is one of the core issues addressed by all of the studies

surveyed. The authors of theses studies find it difficult to choose the appropriate discount rate,

especially in relation to a 45 year period in the future. Due to differences in the appraisal of the risk

inherent in the production of sound recordings, the three studies apply discount rates that range from

3% to 9% in real terms (Liebowitz: 3-6%; PWC: 9% and CIPIL: 5-9%). The European Commission

Impact Assessment Guidelines SEC(2005) 791, (p. 37), recommend, on the other hand, application of a

standard discount rate of 4%. This rate broadly corresponds to the average real yield on longer-term

government debt in the EU over a period from the early 1980s onwards. The economics of copyright

literature is, however, unanimous that using a 4% discount rate to calculate the present value of a 45

year term extension yields results that are too optimistic. For the purpose of this analysis, therefore,

more conservative estimates are presented.

EN 35 EN

Estimated future revenue from extension is then calculated as a percentage of the revenue

achieved in the initial 50 years. The uncertainty that accompanies these studies is

understandable since estimates must cover almost five decades. Besides, not all impacts are of

economic dimension.

The three studies come to the following conclusions as to the percentage that estimated future

income generated in the extra 45 years of protection represents when compared to the income

achieved in the initial 50 years: Liebowitz: 3-14%; PWC: 0.1-1.9%; and CIPIL: <1%.

The PWC study is the only study based on actual data and enables us to add a concrete

dimension to the results. This study applies to the UK and it analyses the revenues from music

sales, license fee income and other royalty income. The value of the initial 50 year term for

sales in the UK is calculated to reach £ 8.568 billion. The high-end estimate of total present

value of the 95-year period would amount to £ 8.731 billion, whereas the low-end estimate

would yield £ 8.576 billion82. A 45 year extension of the term of protection would create

between £ 8.4 million and £ 163 million in additional revenues. The PWC study is limited to

the UK sales revenue. As EU sales are 3.5 times larger than the UK sales, it can be roughly

estimated that a 45 year term extension would generate between € 44 million and € 843

million in additional revenues for the EU. If record producers get 90% of the sales price and

performers only 10%, the benefit to record producers would yield between € 39 million and €

758 million. If a fund of 20% were set up for performers, the benefit to record producers

would decrease to between € 31 million and € 607 million.

If the benefit from term extension were to be calculated on the basis of other, higher estimates

(using a lower discount rate) (see Liebowitz study), the music industry could get an additional

£ 1.182 billion in the UK. Extrapolated to the EU level, this would yield to over € 6 billion.

However, some economists have expressed reservations on this high-end estimate. This is due

to the fact that Liebowitz relies on very optimistic assumptions with respect to the discount

rate, the continued popularity of repertoire (the so-called 'cultural depreciation') and the

potential loss of market share if the term of protection expires.

7.3.3. Impact on broadcasters and public venues where music is played

For the reasons explained in relation to the 'life or 50' term extension for performers (see

section 7.2.3), there would be no impact on prices paid for broadcasts and performances of

music in public venues.

7.3.4. Impact on public domain record labels

The impact of a term extension for both performers and record producers would be similar to

the impact of a term extension for performers only (see section 7.2.4). This is because record

producers are usually granted an assignment of the performers' rights. The longer term would

imply that the impact on public domain labels would last longer. Their loss of earnings would

be equivalent to the additional earnings of record producers (see section 7.3.2).

82 The higher range estimate assumes, in favour of the proponents of term extension, that the expiry of

copyright entails a 100% market share loss, whereas the lower end estimate assumes no market loss.

EN 36 EN

7.3.5. Impact on consumers

A term extension would have no negative impacts on consumer prices and would have a

positive impact on the quality of services offered to consumers as well as on consumer choice.

It would send a clear signal that the interests of the music industry and of consumers are not

opposed but instead concur on a competitive music market.

The impact of on consumer prices is expected to be minimal. The only study that compares

prices for in-copyright and out-of-copyright sound recordings is the PWC study on "The

Impact of Copyright Extension for Sound Recordings in the UK"83. The PWC study looks at

129 albums recorded between 1950 and 1958. It finds no clear evidence that records in which

the related rights have expired are sold systematically at lower prices than records which are

still protected.

Other studies have considered the price impact of copyright protection84. For instance, the

Gower's review relies on a study analysing the impact of copyright on the price of books, and

relies on partial results of that survey85. Studies on books are not directly relevant to the

impact of copyright on prices of sound recordings. This is because books are only subject to

one copyright (i.e., of the authors) while sound recordings, as well as being protected by the

related rights of producers and performers, incorporate copyright protected musical works.

Thus when the related rights in the sound recording have expired, the copyright in the musical

composition often has not. As a result, the gradual "de-protection" (first the neighbouring

rights, then the authors in co-written) leads to even less price fluctuations as with books.

However, even in the category of books, either no overall price difference is found between

samples of books in- or out-of-copyright, or the impact of copyright on the price is extremely

model-dependant and therefore the estimates obtained cannot be very robust. Given the lack

of widely accepted models and the length of the time span, it is fair to say that there is no

clear evidence that prices for sound recordings will increase due to term extension.

Consumers can also access music online or from mobile phones. The digital music market is

growing and currently accounts for approximately 15% of the music market worldwide. The

various pricing models of online music clearly show that whether a sound recording is in or

out of copyright is not a relevant factor to determine consumer prices. For instance, as far as

"download to own" is concerned, several music vending platform operate by selling tracks

individually, for instance MSN Music86, Nokia Music Store87, iTunes88, Napster Light89,

83 PriceWaterhouseCoopers (April 2006), "The Impact of Copyright Extension for Sound Recordings in

the UK", report prepared for BPI.

84 Liebowitz (May 2007 – preliminary draft), "Copyright: How Large are the Deadweight Losses"; and

Heald (2006), "Property Rights and the Efficient Exploitation of Copyrighted Works: an Empirical

Analysis of Public Domain and Copyrighted Fiction Best Sellers".

85 The Gowers review relies on Heald (2006). In the whole sample of bestsellers, no difference in price is

to be found, which is however not true for the much smaller sub-sample of durable books (i.e. most

enduringly popular), where books in-copyright were priced higher than books out-of-copyright. Gowers

presents only these latter results.

86 MSN Music operates in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands,

Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

87 Nokia Music Store operates in France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden and the

UK.

88 iTunes operates in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy,

Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and the U.K., at the same

price. See Apple press release, London, January 9, 2008.

89 Napster operates in Germany and the UK.

EN 37 EN

Musicload.de90 or Fnacmusic.com91. The vast majority of these services sell tracks at a single

fixed price92, whether or not it is in copyright or not93. Other business models offer their

customers access to music on a subscription basis, either for a limited number of downloads

or on an "all you can eat" basis (unlimited downloads). Such services, for example

Omniphone Music Service94, FNAC musique illimitée95, eMusic96 (which includes the

complete classical music catalogue of Naxos Records) or Napster to go, charge a monthly fee

whatever the tracks downloaded, i.e. whether they are in copyright or not. Finally, some

services offer music "bundled" with another product such as a mobile phone ("Nokia comes

with music"97) or services such as Internet Access (for example, in France, Neuf Cegetel

bundled with access to Universal's catalogue or Alice bundled with EMI's catalogue). Again,

in that case, it is clear that the price paid by the consumer is the same whether he downloads

music which is in or out of copyright. Finally, it should be noted that public domain

companies do not release their sound recordings on the internet, but instead only sell them as

CDs.

The above circumstances would indicate that the very small copyright payments to performers

and the producers of sound recordings might not be the most relevant factor determining retail

prices. This is partly because sound recordings are only fully in the 'public domain' when both

the related rights in the performance and the record and the copyright in the musical work are

no longer protected. Accordingly, other than classical music, few records are completely in

the 'public domain'. Moreover, the sound recordings will still be protected in the US where the

term of protection is 95 years. Making available a work on the internet would therefore not be

possible on a global scale, because the making available would amount to an infringement of

the record producer's rights in the US98. Moreover, sound recordings compete with all other

sound recordings of the same genre for the same audience whether they are in or out of

copyright99. This competition between protected recordings and between protected and nonprotected

recordings keeps prices down.

The impact on the quality of the products and services offered to consumers might also be

positive. Although competition in offering public domain sound recordings might increase

90 Musicload.de operates in Germany.

91 Fnacmusic.com operates in France.

92 With some exceptions, such as Musicload in Germany. Several factors come into account in

Musicload's pricing, such as the price of the album in relation to the number of tracks, and the duration

of the tracks.

93 MSN Music: €0.99 per track; Nokia Music Store: €1.00 per track, £0.80 in the UK; iTunes: € 0.99 per

track; Napster Light: €0.99, £0.79 in the UK; Fnacmusic.com: €0.99 per track.

94 UK.

95 France.

96 Austria, Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,

Portugal, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK.

97 Yet to be launched.

98 In the US, the Federal term of protection only applies from 1972. All records previously released are

still protected under most state laws and are not pre-empted under federal law. Only in 2067 will the

rights in records start falling in the public domain in the whole of the US under federal law. See New

York Court of Appeals, 5 April 2007, Capitol Records, Inc. v. Naxos of America, Inc, decision:

USCOA,2 No. 30.

99 "In the vast majority of instances, copyright provides no monopoly power to the copyright owner and

the only cost advantage that would accrue to consumers of non-copyright protected works would be the

saving for not having to pay the creator of the work" (Liebowitz, February 2006, 'What are the

Consequences of the EU extending Copyright Length for Sound Recordings', report prepared for IFPI.,

p. 22).

EN 38 EN

their quality, it is not clear that this is the case. Indeed performers and record producers have

an interest in defending their artistic integrity and their reputation which ensures that they

offer only the highest quality recordings to the public. In contrast, some public domain

companies re-release recordings without due regard for the quality of the recording, without

re-mastering old titles, and often without regard for the value of the performance. Instead, the

records are used as cheap promotional material to bring consumers to supermarkets. This is

true to such an extent that in some instances, such as the Henri Salvador case100, the moral

rights of the performer can be infringed. Also, the record company which continues to exploit

a sound recording has an incentive to maximise the value of the recording. Record companies

therefore invest heavily in the promotion and marketing of their records – up to 16% of their

revenues101 – thus ensuring that there is demand for those sound recordings and that they

reach a wide audience.

Likewise, it has been seen above that very few public domain companies market records

which are genuinely out of copyright, i.e. when the copyright in the musical composition and

the related rights in the phonogram and performances have expired. While some companies

do, they perform this on a very limited scale, and the sound recordings are not available for

download. Indeed when all rights have expired, there are few incentives to publish old sound

recordings, because any competitor can free ride the effort expended in digitising and

marketing the sound- recording.

The impact on consumer choice is also expected to be positive. In the long run, this is because

a term extension will benefit cultural diversity by ensuring the availability of resources to

fund and develop new talent (see below). In the short to medium term, a term extension

provides record companies with an incentive to digitise and market their back catalogue of old

recordings. It is already clear that internet distribution offers unique opportunities to market

an unprecedented quantity of sound recordings. The major download services currently offer

more than six million tracks available online. In addition, many recordings are now expected

to enjoy a 'second life' on the Internet. Since digital distribution can represent new cheaper

ways in which to offer a very wide variety of recordings on a global scale, record companies

will be incentivised to benefit from what has been coined as the 'long tail' effect – low sales

volumes in small markets (especially in the digital online context) which can collectively add

up to and even rival the relatively few bestsellers102. For instance, in the UK, the top 40 single

tracks account for only 10% of all tracks downloaded, while the 'long tail' accounts for most

online sales volume103. Universal’s download only re-issue programme, which includes only

“deleted” recordings, launched in 2006, has prompted 3 million downloads since its launch in

2006. Many record companies will make their entire back catalogue available online and the

still popular sound recordings from the 1960s will experience a further upturn in sales as a

result of an expansion in digital distribution. For example, Universal makes available to

consumers 18 000 previously ‘deleted’ tracks and the digitisation of its back catalogue should

100 Paris Court of Appeal, November 14th, 2007, SARL Jacky boy Music v Salvador, JurisData : 2007-

349990, see above, section 7.24.

101 ADAMI study, 'Filière de la musique enregistrée : quels sont les véritables revenus des artistes

interprètes?' (April 2006), p.13.

102 "The Long Tail", by Chris Anderson, 'Wired' magazine, October 2004.

103 IFPI Digital Music Report 2008, p.8.

EN 39 EN

reach 60 000 tracks by the end of 2008; Deutsche Grammophon offers a music download

service which includes 2500 albums, 600 of which are not available on CD104.

This contributes to enhancing consumer choice as many recordings that are not available in

retail stores due to limited shelf space can now be made available online. Older or niche

European repertoire will be more widely available. While it might be expected that public

domain companies would make more recordings available, this has not been the case. As

explained above, there are few companies who market public domain sound recordings of

out-of-copyright musical compositions. Moreover, as far as niche markets are concerned, they

do so at relatively high prices and do not offer those recordings for download. This is partly

because absent property rights, public domain companies are exposed to free ridding: they

have no incentive to invest in promotion and marketing which could be free-ridden by any

competitors. This is why companies such as Naxos opt to re-record public domain classical

music105.

7.3.6. Impact on cultural diversity

Since term extension will lead to some financial benefit for record producers, more resources

from old recordings are available to fund new talent. Resources from old recordings,

especially from recordings in the golden fifties and sixties, can still be considerable, even in

the years to come. Sales of sound recordings have an initial boost in the first few years

following their publication and then decline from that level to remain, for decades, at a fairly

constant level106. Record companies state that they often use the income derived from older

recordings to produce and market new recordings. More income from the golden 1960's and

other enduringly successful recordings will help finance investment in new recordings.

According to Nigel Parker, "the music business has grown based on the long-tail income from

established copyrights. Accumulation of copyrights spreads risk and generates funds to

finance new music. Without long term profits from the most successful creators, investment in

new music would be almost non-existent"107. This means that the music industry is essentially

a portfolio business where successful recordings will generate the revenue required to finance

new recordings. This would mean that new successful European repertoire would need to rely

on older repertoire providing the revenue necessary to finance cultural diversity.

An increase in A&R spending and a better financial situation of the recording industry will

therefore provide increased opportunities for performers in both popular and niche repertoire.

According to the PWC study, A&R amounts to 17% of revenues. If the estimated financial

benefit of the record producers is between € 39 million and € 758 million, this results in the

additional A&R value of between € 6.7 million and € 129 million. In the first decade, the

additional A&R value would be between € 1.7 million and € 28 million108. Part of this

additional investment will benefit directly new EU performers.

104 IFPI Digital Music Report 2008, p.11; Universal press release, LONDON, January 18, 2006, available

at http://new.umusic.com/News.aspx?NewsId=355.

105 See e.g. W. Landes, R. Posner, 'Indefinitely Renewable Copyright', John M. Olin Law and Economics

Working Paper 154, p. 19, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract_id=319321 .

106 Liebowitz (February 2006), 'What are the Consequences of the EU extending Copyright Length for

Sound Recordings', report prepared for IFPI.

107 Nigel Parker (2004), 'Music Business: Infrastructure, Practice and Law'.

108 All figures should be adapted, if a fund diverting 20% of record producers' additional revenue to

performers was accounted for (see Annex, section 3).

EN 40 EN

7.3.7. Impact on information society services

The impact on digital libraries and other similar services would be negative. Although the

issue of rights clearance would not be as complicated as under option 2b, it would arise over a

longer period of time. However, flexible solutions for rights clearance and orphan works

could be found on an ad hoc basis.

7.3.8. The international dimension

The impact of a term extension on the international flow or royalties should be considered

separately in relation to sales and secondary exploitation. The income from secondary

exploitation is collectively administered and as a consequence, the distributions to EU

performers are more easily traceable. Moreover, a significantly larger share of remuneration

from secondary exploitation is distributed to performers than from sales109.

As far as sales are concerned, according to available IFPI figures, the domestic repertoire of

each Member State represents in EU aggregate terms 48% in value of music sales in tangible

form (mainly CDs). The international repertoire accounts for 45%. But 'international'

repertoire here includes European repertoire from other Member States as well as US and

non-US repertoire (e.g., Latin American repertoire).

Equally, the Gowers report claims that 43% of the revenues that would be earned in the

extended term would be remitted 'overseas'110. However, these 43% include US repertoire and

repertoire from other European states. It is therefore a fallacy to believe that 43% of UK

remittances in a longer term would all go to the US or to other non-EU countries. On the

contrary, much of this revenue would remain in the European Union. For example, figures

available for Denmark show that 45% of the repertoire sold in Denmark is of Danish (i.e.,

domestic) origin, 37% comes from other-European Member States and only 14% is imported

from the US and 4% from other non-EU sources111. This means that most of the additional

revenue collected over an extended term of protection would therefore stay in Europe and

benefit European performers. The Gowers estimates would not, therefore, be relevant to

determine the trade balance of the EU as a whole.

The flow of royalties from broadcasting and performing phonograms in public venues would

be only very marginally affected by a term extension. This is because the EU's only

significant trading partner for music is the US112, and under the applicable international

conventions, the remittances between the EU and the US are currently minimal (see Annex,

section 4).

Under the Rome Convention and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT),

the royalty flows from the EU to the US are small. Indeed most EU Member States do not

grant equitable remuneration under the Rome Convention to phonograms produced by US

109 The split for revenues from the single equitable remuneration for performers is usually 50-50 between

performers and producers. Overall, in the EU in 2004, performers collecting societies collected € 351

million and producers collecting societies collected € 293 million, KEA Study, p. 34.

110 Gowers Review on Intellectual Property, December 2006, p. 55.

111 2004 Annual Report of KODA, the Danish Performing Rights Society.

112 In particular, in 2004 EU-15 imports of record materials from the US amounted to USD 752 million in

2004 , while the added imports from Japan, Australia, Canada and China amounted to USD 260 million

(source: OECD).

EN 41 EN

record producers or first fixed in the US113. Under the WPPT, to which the US and the EC are

signatories, the US applies equitable remuneration only to certain digital audio transmissions

(such as webcasting). Accordingly, EU Member States are under no obligation under the

WPPT to grant phonograms produced by US record producers or first fixed in the US a right

to equitable remuneration for broadcasting and communication to the public114. In practice,

only a small number of Member States (e.g. UK, Ireland) pay royalties to US record

producers for records produced by US producers or published simultaneously in the US and

another country which is a party to the Rome Convention or the WPPT. Even though, the UK

and Ireland do not grant such payments to US performers.

The term extension would thus not result in additional remittances to the US for secondary

remuneration claims.

7.3.9. Administrative burden

Changing the term of protection would require an amendment to Directive 2006/116/EC and

Member States would then have to amend their national laws accordingly. However, this

burden would not be substantial since they would not be introducing new laws but amending

existing legislation.

7.4. Moral rights of performers

The impact on performers would be positive. Performers would have the right to object to

derogatory uses of their performances. This would not provide them with supplementary

income other than awards for damages. It would allow them to restrict objectionable uses of

their performances, for instance use in advertising, use in conjunction with pornographic

material or use in certain political contexts. It would also improve their social standing and

signal the recognition of their artistic contributions more or less on a par with authors.

However, merely granting performers the right to restrict objectionable uses of their

performances would not necessarily protect them during the whole of their lifetime. In some

Member States, the moral rights of performers are perpetual. In others, moral rights last as

long as the performer's economic rights: performers thus lose their moral rights when their

performances fall into the public domain.

The impact on record producers would be negative. Performers might be able to restrict

certain uses of their performances, for instance in commercial advertising. As music is often

used in advertising, this could in certain cases deprive record producers of revenues. The

performers might also have a claim for damages against producers who allow objectionable

uses without the performer's authorisation. For instance, the French singer/songwriter Gilbert

Montagné successfully relied on his moral rights (as an author) in the song "On va s'aimer" to

sue Universal Music publishing, for allowing the use of a modified version of the song ("On

va fluncher") in a commercial for a food chain115.

The Impact on broadcasters and public venues where music is played would also be negative

as performers could object to certain uses of their performances in radio and TV broadcasts.

113 This stems from notifications made under the Article 5(3) of the Rome Convention.

114 Article 15(3) in conjunction with Article 4(2) of the WPPT.

115 Didier B., Gilbert M. and SNAC v Universal Music Publishing and others, French Cour de Cassation,

1st section, 5 December 2006, case n°1718 FS-D.

EN 42 EN

The impact on public domain labels could be negative. Performers may be able to restrict

certain uses of their works once they are in the public domain, depending on whether their

moral rights are limited in time or perpetual. For example, in France, the performer Henri

Salvador successfully sued a label for releasing and distributing in supermarkets at a minimal

price a cheap compilation including his songs116. The public domain labels wishing to exploit

songs in the public domain would thus have to request the authorisation of the performer or

his heirs.

The impact on cultural diversity would be positive. Strengthening moral rights of performers

would be beneficial for European cultural diversity, as their social status and recognition

would be improved. Although this is a non-pecuniary aspect of protection, it would contribute

to a 'feel good' factor for performers who would be confident in their ability to exercise

control over objectionable uses of their work

The administrative burden would be significant. Since moral rights have not yet been

harmonised at European level, the Commission would have to propose stand alone legislation.

Harmonising moral rights would thus entail a significant legislative burden on many Member

States, as there are currently significant disparities in the moral rights granted to performers in

Member States, relating to the substance and the duration of those rights. Such differences are

permitted under international law and reflect the different copyright traditions of Member

States. For instance in the UK117, the moral rights of performers are limited in time and some

must be asserted or can be waivered, while in France, the moral rights of performers are

unwaiverable and perpetual118.

7.5. Protection of performers’ rights: ‘use it or lose it’

The impact on performers would be positive. Performers would be in a better position to

ensure their creative output reaches the public. The rights in unexploited recordings would

revert to them and they could re-release them through another record company (or do it

themselves) if the original company does not publish or release the record. This is already

possible for authors under some national laws119 and it appears that some independent record

companies do actually give rights back to performers if they have stopped selling the record

for a certain time. Specific legislative measures would nevertheless strengthen the position of

performers.

The impact on cultural diversity would also be positive. If performers were to make use of the

possibility to get their sound recording re-released by another record company, or by

themselves, more repertoire, including niche and local music, would be widely available. This

would strengthen European cultural diversity.

Consumers would also benefit from a wider selection of repertoire because the performer

would be able to reissue the sound recording if the original record company ceases to market

it.

116 Paris Court of Appeal, November 14th, 2007, SARL Jacky boy Music v Salvador, JurisData : 2007-

349990.

117 See The Performances (Moral Rights, etc.) Regulations 2006, which amends the 1988 Copyright

Designs and Patents Act.

118 See Article L. 212-2 of the French Intellectual Property Code.

119 Austria, Belgium, Germany, Luxemburg, Nordic Countries, Portugal, Spain.

EN 43 EN

In terms of administrative burden, further amendments to Directive 2006/116/EC would be

required, as well as transposition measures from Member States which do not currently

provide for a ‘use it or lose it’ provision. Flexibility should be allowed in transposition, in

order for measures to fit in with the Member States' existing copyright and contract

legislation. Alternatively the Directive could adopt a softer approach, by encouraging Member

States to be vigilant that record companies voluntarily introduce 'use it or lose it' conditions

into their contracts.

7.6. Creation of a fund for session musicians

The fund dedicated to session musicians would include 20% of the revenues derived by

record companies from the sale of sound recordings benefiting from a term extension. The

20% should be based on revenues, as this allows transparency and enforceability of the

provision. The 20% strike an appropriate balance between the interests of session musicians

and of the record producers.

The impact on session musicians would be positive. The amount of additional revenue for

session musicians would depend on the extent of the increase in the term of protection for

record producers. An average performer would benefit from € 47 to € 737 in additional

revenues every year (see Annex, section 3 for methodology) from a 45-year term extension.

As there are no estimates available as to the number of session musicians whose performances

would fall into the public domain, we present indicative estimates on how much an average

performer would benefit if the term were extended to 95 years and the fund were to benefit all

performers. The payment to an average performer would increase to an average of € 130 to €

2065 every year, i.e. 2.8 times120.

The impact on record producers would be negative, but should be considered against the

benefits of the term extension. In the course of a 45 year term extension, the benefits of the

extension of term for record producers would be reduced from € 758 million to € 607 million

(high end estimate) or from € 39 million to € 31 million (low end estimate). Consequently,

this would also reduce the additional revenue available for A&R from € 129 million to € 103

million (high end estimate) or from € 6.7 million to € 5.3 million (low end estimate).

A simple model calculation in the IA shows that a 20% share would strike the right balance

between the profitability of phonograms that are exploited in the extended term and the

creation of a tangible added benefit for performers. This calculation attempts to measure the

impact that a revenue-based fund would have on record labels' profit margin in the years after

term extension.

Average self-declared overall company-wide operating margin of the phonogram majors

(EBITA/revenue) in 2007 is 9.1% (EMI 3.3% - Universal 12.8% - Warner 14% - BMG

6.2%). As mentioned above, according to IFPI, only one CD in eight is profitable.

If only 1 in 8 CDs is profitable and the average profit rate is 9.1%, this one profitable CD

must be generating a profit margin that is high enough to compensate for seven unprofitable

CDs and still produce an aggregate profit of 9.1%.

120 As the fund would be drawn from the income of record companies, the revenues of featured artists

would not be adversely affected. The overall impact for performers would thus be positive.

EN 44 EN

On this basis, one can estimate the profitability of the one successful CD by comparing its

profit margin with that of the remaining seven CDs. Assuming that: 5 CDs ("CD2" through

"CD6" in the example) break even (profit = 0), which is extremely optimistic and 2 CDs

("CD7" and "CD8") make a loss (for "CD7" the loss is 30; for "CD8" the loss is 40); then the

successful CD "CD1" has to make a substantial profit. In our example the profit margin is

60%.

As phonogram producers will focus on reissuing the "premium" CDs during the extended

term, i.e., those with very high profit margins, a revenue-based fund (setting aside 20% of

revenue achieved with the premium CDs) would mean that 20% of the revenue attributed to

CD "CD1", 250 (i.e., 50) would be set aside for performers. Therefore, even after taking into

account the fund, the phonogram producers' profit margin in the extended term would still be

100/250=40%.

Table 3: Profitability of CDs

Administrative burden: the creation of the fund for session musicians would require each

record company to set up an account in favour of session musicians. Such accounts appear to

be relatively straightforward to set up as the US example on the remuneration scheme for

webcasting shows121. The administrative burden on record companies would be further

limited by the fact that the record companies would not have to identify the beneficiaries and

distribute the monies collected in the fund. Distribution would be incumbent on the

performing artists collecting society that represents session musicians and that, in

consequence, has a database on session musicians in place.

7.7. Summary of impacts

Table 4 summarises the impact analysis contained in section 7 identifying economic and

social (cultural) impacts of the different options.

121 Under the Small Webcasters Settlement Act of 2002, session musicians are entitled to 2.5% of royalties.

The royalties "are deposited in an escrow account managed by an independent administrator jointly

appointed by copyright owners of sound recordings and the American Federation of Musicians".

EN 45 EN

Option 2a

"extension for 50

years or life"

Option 2b

"extension to 95

years with

conditions"

Option 3b "moral

rights"

Option 3c "use it or

lose it"

Option 3d "fund

for session

musicians"

Performers + ++ + ++ ++

Record producers + ++ - O -

Broadcasters O O - O O

Public domain

record labels

- -- - O O

Consumers O O O O O

Cultural diversity + + + ++ +

Information Society

services

-- - - - O

International

dimension

O O O O O

Administrative

burden

-- - -- - -

++

+

O

-

-- larger negative impact

larger impact

some impact

no impact

some negative impact

Table 4: Summary table of impacts

8. COMPARISON OF OPTIONS

Table 5 summarises the degree to which the different options are suitable to achieve the six

operational objectives identified in the impact assessment (section 5.3). It becomes clear from

this table that the options involving a term extension (2a and 2b) seem to be rather more

successful in contributing towards the policy objectives of increasing performers'

remuneration and international competitiveness. Both options 2a and 2b bring incremental

financial benefits to performers and would thus allow more performers to dedicate more of

their time to creation. In addition, option 2b would also increase incrementally the pool of

resources available to record producers for A&R and digitisation of their back catalogue, and

could thus have an additional positive impact on cultural diversity.

Option 2b is easier to implement than option 2a, as the latter links calculation of the term of

protection to the life of individual performers. As the example of co-written works shows,

linking a copyright to the life of individual contributors in practice raises complex issues

when several performers contribute to a sound recording. Each co-performer in a performance

would have to be registered and the term would only be triggered upon the death of the last

co-performer.

On the other hand, Option 3c has very substantial and undeniable benefits as well. It would

incrementally increase the revenue stream channelled to performers as they regain control

over recordings which would otherwise not be commercially exploited by the record industry

and the revitalisation of this long 'dormant' repertoire would open up business opportunities

for new recording labels, especially those who rely on smaller repertoire.

EN 46 EN

This option would thus be useful as a complement to enhance the positive impact of a term

extension on the revenue of performers.

Table 5: Analysis of options against objectives

9. MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Monitoring and evaluation will be conducted in line with the policy objectives as identified

above. As policy options have not yet been chosen, the details of monitoring and evaluation

will be more specifically defined at a later stage.

The monitoring could develop along three models:

(i) The first concentrates on the short-term, starting right after the adoption of the

proposal. It focuses on the sheer implementation of the proposal, i.e. amendments of

national rules.

(ii) The second would be mid-term and focus on direct effects such as performers'

income and A&R spending by record companies in Europe.

(iii) Finally, monitoring could be set up of the overall economic and social impacts of

the proposal “on the ground” in the mid- to long-term.

9.1. Contribute to enhancing the welfare of performers

The remuneration of performers can be monitored using the following indicators:

Income from secondary remuneration claims: information on how much is collected

and how it is distributed can be provided by collecting societies.

Income from performers and trade unions about the evolution of types and content of

contracts and collective agreements between performers and session musicians and

record companies

EN 47 EN

Remuneration from exclusive rights: precise information is difficult to obtain as the

remuneration is governed by individual contracts. However, record producers,

collecting societies and performer's unions can provide indicators of the level of

remuneration of performers.

Remuneration from record companies' in-house funds for session musicians:

information on whether such in-house funds have been set up and whether payments

have been made to session musicians.

Gradually align authors' and performers' protection:

Implementation of the proposal by Member States: depending on the option chosen,

the transposition process would be monitored and indicate the level of protection

enjoyed by performers in the Member States.

Case law upholding the moral and economic rights of performers would also provide

an indicator of the practical and legal effects of implementation.

9.2. Contribute to enhancing the competitiveness of the EU music industry

Diminish the discrepancies in protection between the EU and US music markets:

The amount of 'European' music broadcast in Europe, and the size of the music

market, are indicators of whether the production of European music is commercially

attractive for record companies. This information can be provided by collecting

societies which collect single equitable remuneration for performers and producers

and by broadcasters.

Information on the trend in the number and size of record producers in the EU and in

the US would give an indicator on the development of the general economic situation

of the music industry in the EU.

Incremental increase in A&R resources:

A&R expenditure would be directly obtained from record companies. Alternatively,

the evolution of the revenues of record companies would also provide an indicator,

as A&R expenditure is usually in proportion to record producers' revenues.

9.3. Increase available music repertoire

Ensure availability of music at reasonable prices:

Information on the pricing of records could be obtained from record companies,

distributors and consumer groups.

Information on the evolution of broadcasting tariffs can be obtained from collecting

societies.

Encourage the digitisation of back catalogue

Repertoire and back catalogues made available online by record companies, and the

revenues derived, are indicators of whether the record industry used the additional

EN 48 EN

income from term extension to develop the offer of music to consumers. This

information could be provided by record companies, distributors, 'brick and mortar'

and online music retailers.

Information on revenues generated from the 'long tail' effect would indicate whether

record companies have an incentive to digitise and offer as many recordings as

possible. This information could be provided by record companies, distributors,

'brick and mortar' and online music retailers

A more detailed set of indicators will be considered in the light of the policy choice selected.

A first comprehensive evaluation could therefore take place 5 years after the entry into force

of the proposal.

EN 49 EN

ANNEX

To the impact assessment on the legal and economic situation of performers and record

producers in the European Union

EN 50 EN

1. PUBLIC CONSULTATION ON THE REVIEW OF THE EC LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS

The following table presents the results of the above public consultation as concerns the length of protection of related rights.

NAME OF CONTRIBUTOR REMARKS REASONS GIVEN

ISSUE 1 : Duration of protection of related rights

AEPO (Association of

European Performers

Organisations)

70yrs

- Expiry in 2004 of recordings from 1954 (additional income)

- compare to authors

AFI (Associazione dei

fonografici italiana)

-increased investments, promotion of new talents

- music in past not recouped investment costs

- new technology good for global exploitation by (especially SME’s)

new technology good for new business models

- new fashion for singles (via internet)

- phonogram producers are current ‘weak links’ ? in production chain

AFYVE (Asociacion

Fonografica y Videográfica

Española)

BAMP (Bulgarian Association

of the Music Producers)

BPI (British Phonographic

Industry)

Croation Phonographic

Association

EMI Music

FGPA (Lithuania)

FIMI (Italian Federation of the

Music Industry)

GIART (International

95 yrs

- countries with significant markets have already extended protection: India (60), Turkey, Chile, Brazil

(70), Mexico (75), USA (95 if published, 120 from fixation if not published); Singapore and Australia

have signed Free Trade Agreements with the US to extend protection to 70 years

- producers need longer to recoup investment

- lifespans increased

- cost of producing & marketing original material increased

- losses due to piracy reduced recoup on investment

- present famous artists still alive seeing their recordings fall into public domain – unfair + not in line

with objectives of protection

- differences in term between EU and US cause legal uncertainty, and lead to infringements

- especially problematical in on-line environment (where a phonogram can be exploited

simultaneously in many different countries)

- different terms could hamper development of new legitimate on-line business models

- longer term of protection gives incentive for RH to create and disseminate works in that territory

- longer term indicative of commitment to protect RH, local culture & creativity in general

- lower term of protection in EU difficult for RH to meet foreign competition and obtain adequate

international protection (“comparison of terms”).

EN 51 EN

Organisation of Performing

Artists)

GVL (Gesellschaft zur

Verwertung von

Leistungsschutzrechten)

IFPI and its national groups

(Austria, Belgium, Czech

Republic, Denmark,

Germany, Finland, Greece,

Hungary, Slovakia, Sweden,

Poland [ZPAV])

LaMPA (Latvian Music

Producers Association)

NVPI (Dutch Music Industry)

PPL & VPL

UPFR (Romanian Association

of Music Producers)

- discrimination with film producers who are considered as authors

RICHARD, Sir Cliff Extension

(for at least the lifetime of

the artists)

- present famous artists still alive seeing their recordings fall into public domain – unfair + not in line

with objectives of protection

- matter of protecting European culture

(ARTIS – GEIE

BECTU

IMMF (International Music

Managers Forum))

- should align with the term applicable to films

Music Manager’s Forum

Extension

(same as authors) - unacceptable that compositions should enjoy a term of protection up to three times longer than that

for performances; no justification for such discrimatory treatment (the reason is entirely historical)

- the argument that a shorter term of protection benefits consumers is not borne out in practice since

phonogram producers continue to sell recordings that are in the public domain at the same price as

when they were protected by copyright

- an extension of sound recording copyright will also take thousands of musicians off means tested

benefits and greatly lessen the burden of the state; the state will benefit both from the a reduction in

benefits paid to poor musicians and from increased taxation of rich musicians and phonogram

producers

EN 52 EN

AZNAVOUR, Charles - recordings are principal source of income.

- internet possibilities are competition to sales of CDs

- internet use of recordings in public domain are unfair competition to recent recordings

ESDA (European Sound

Directors’ Association)

- Urgent consideration should be given to changing the term of copyright in sound recordings to

safeguard the revenues of European produced sound recordings that would otherwise be due to

producers and performers

- concerned that any adjustment of the term of protection of phonograms applies a parallel extension to

the performers’ rights to equitable remuneration

Music Business Forum

Extension

- It promotes entrepreneurship in the creative economy, a sector of increasing importance for the UK’s

international competitiveness, and benefits consumers by generating innovation and investment in new

British music

- An appropriate duration of copyright for performances and sound recordings is fundamental to the

ability of the music sector in Britain to continue to take a leading role, culturally and economically, on

the international stage

ASLIB (Association for

Information Management)

LACA (Libraries and archives

copyright alliance)

McLean, Wallace

SCONUL (Society of College,

National and University

Libraries)

NO extension

Actually talk about author’s rights….(but can presume same for related rights)

EN 53 EN

ARD / ZDF

BAK (Bundesarbeitskammer)

BEUC (European Consumers’

Organisation)

Naxos

PEARLE (Performing Arts

Employers Associations League

Europe)

Publishers Association UK

S., Christiano

Schaefer, Franz

STM (International Association

of Scientific, Technical and

Medical Publishers)

Wirtschaftskammer Austria

-IP Content should be available for public – Art 11 and Art 17 EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

(Freedom of expression and information & Right to Property)

- Good balance of interests already found in 1993

- Too soon to re-open debate and extend again

- Music will disappear in archives

- Only “top seller” works will be produced for economic reasons

- US protects especially producer industry.

- Further extension will benefit producers and not artists. New creative impulse would be hindered, not

encouraged.

- most artists that would be affected of an extension are either no longer recording or have deceased

and will not therefore be motivated to make new recordings just because copyright extension has been

granted to them

- The effect of extending the copyright period would diminish the availability of a broad range of

music at an affordable price

BSAC (British Screen Advisory

Council)

Law Society of Scotland

CRID (Centre de Recherches

Informatique et Droit)

- US legal regime of copyright does not know the notion of a related right in the musical sector (the

95-yrs-term of protection for musical works applies to copyright in sound recordings and not to a

related right in music productions)

- the extension of the duration of copyright in the US was based on the will to align the term of

protection to that of the EU (some specific provisions of the US copyright regime – e.g. works made

for hire, sound recordings – required another way of calculating the duration than the death of the

author)

EDRI (European Digital

Rights)

FIPR (Foundation for

NO extension

- extension would diminish the choice of music on the market in Europe and undermine reprint

houses, depriving them of income they now earn lawfully by republishing out-of-copyright works; and

it is not possible to motivate dead authors to create new works

- a “use it or lose it”-clause should be introduced into copyright law: if a work has been unavailable to

EN 54 EN

Information Policy Research)

VOSN (Foundation for Open

Source, Netherlands)

EFFI (Electronic Frontier

Finland)

the public for three yrs the creator should be able to reclaim the copyright from the publisher; if the

creator does not exercise this right, then, after a further two yrs, the copyright should expire and the

work should fall into the public domain

EICTA (European Industry

Association)

Intellect

Nokia corporation

TMPDF (Trade Marks, Patents

& Designs Federation)

Term of protection is part of the balance between interested parties which in this field includes not just

the producers of the sound recording and the public but also would have impact on balance between

owners of copyrights and right owners of related rights

- a change in the term of protection would undoubtedly be argued to impact the question of fair

compensation (“levies”) for private copying, which would serve to further exacerbate current

problems with levies as applied in some MS

Foundation for a Free

Information Infrastructure

- lack of economic rationale: the expansion mechanism does not provide a long time perspective on

which the market can trust; an ex-post prolongation would not provide any incentive for businesses as

only historic works are covered that are already there (only the RH of expiration candidates would

benefit)

- public domain creates a lot of opportunities for businesses to make profit from recycling old works

- trust in legislation would be undermined

- prolongation in the US is often regarded as an example of political failure

National Consumer Council - it remains unclear how an extension meaningfully adds to the incentives to produce new works to

justify the loss of public benefit

- there can be little justification for extending the term merely because the US has

Wind Telecomunicazioni

S.p.A.

- suggests a system of (ex ante) compulsory licensing and (ex post) determination of the appropriate

consideration thereof, according to fair and reasonable criteria by independent third parties

- favours reduction of copyright term

EN 55 EN

2. RETROACTIVITY

For both options concerning term extension, the issue of when the term

extension should apply (either retroactively or not) has to be considered. There

are different degrees of retroactivity that can be chosen in providing a term

extension.

– If one applied the term extension only to new recordings, created after the entry into

force of the amended Term Directive, one could perhaps imagine that performers

would be stimulated to increase their creative activity. Moreover, the real financial

benefit for the extra protection would be found far into the future, although could be

accounted for as net present value in the short term. Extending the term for new

performances and recordings only is a simple solution, but does not provide any

immediate relief to the problems identified earlier in this impact assessment. It is for

this reason that it is not of interest to performer representatives and is excluded from

further detailed analysis.

– A partially retroactive term extension would provide supplementary revenue for

existing recordings that soon to fall into the public domain. This is the sort of

extension that is of greater interest to related rights holders because the financial

advantages would be felt in the near term, especially for recordings that are from the

50's and 60's. This is the approach used in Directive 2001/29/EC in its Article 10. This

means that the extension would apply to all sound recordings which were still

protected on the date of adoption (or coming into force) of the amended Directive122.

– Full retro-active extension covers all recordings which are under protection as if the

extended term had applied as from the start of protection. In other words, it would be

as though the recording was protected for 95 years when it was produced. This

solution generates the maximum value for right holders, but requires a mechanism to

compensate for the revival of rights and to exonerate users of music which was no

longer protected under the old term but is protected again under the new term. The

problem of revival of rights arose after the adoption of the Term Directive in 1993. A

case was brought to the European Court of Justice (the Butterfly Case – see footnote

106) to clarify what would be a reasonable time to allow for third parties to continue

selling reissues of public domain material when the rights had revived and therefore

returned to the original copyright holder.

New acts only Partially retro-active Fully retro-active

Advantages Simple Simple Maximum value for

right holders

Disadvantages No immediate benefit

to right holders

Immediate benefit to

many right holders

Complicated

Risk of legal uncertainty

Table 1A: Impacts of retroactive extension

122 This will avoid the problem that arose with acquired rights on recordings which had fallen out of

protection before the amended Term Directive entered into force on 1 July 1995, but which were

eligible for the extended term and resulted in a legal dispute at the ECJ. (Case C-60/98, Butterfly

Music v CEMED, judgement of 29 June 1999).

EN 56 EN

It appears that a partially retro-active extension, with a specific cut off date, would be the

simplest solution as regards the legal and administrative aspects and would bring the

most benefit to right holders from the start.

3. IMPACT OF 45 YEAR TERM EXTENSION: METHODOLOGY

This section explains the methodology employed to quantify the impact of a 45 year term

extension on performers and record producers. The estimation is based on the PWC

study, which is the only study that is based on actual historical data. Other studies would

lead to different estimates.

Because the PWC study is based on actual data, it enables us to add a concrete dimension

to the results. This study applies to the UK and it analyses the revenues from music sales,

licence fee income and other royalty income. The value of the initial 50 year term for

sales in the UK is calculated to reach £ 8.568 billion. The high-end estimate of total

present value of the 95-year period would amount to £ 8.731 billion, whereas the low-end

estimate would yield £ 8.576 billion.123 A 45 year extension of the term of protection

would create between £ 8.5 million and £ 163 million in additional revenues.124

The PWC study is limited to the UK sales revenue. As EU sales are 3.5 times larger than

the UK sales125, it can be roughly estimated that a 45 year term extension would generate

between € 44 million and € 843 million in additional revenues for the EU.126

The additional income, however, will not be evenly spread over the additional period of

the 45 years. Different assumptions of the distribution of income have been taken into

account. This impact assessment is based on calculations provided by the PWC study

which states that the financial benefit that will accrue to the UK music industry in the

first ten years amounts to between £ 2.2 and £ 35 million. Again, this benefit could be

approximated to a financial benefit of between € 11.4 million and € 181 million in

Europe in the first ten years.

Furthermore, the estimates provided by the PWC apply to the music industry (i.e.

performers and record producers together). In order to determine the impact of a 45 year

term extension on individual performers, it must first be determined how much of the

additional income would accrue to performers as opposed to record producers. The

CIPIL study assumes that performers obtain a 5-15% share from sales of sound

recordings. We take the average value of 10% to estimate the performers' share of sales

revenue. The sum of € 44 to € 843 million is therefore distributed as follows:

– Performers obtain a present value of between € 4 million and € 84 million during the

extended term, whereas record producers obtain a present value of between € 39

million and € 758 million.

123 The higher range estimate assumes, in favour of the proponents of term extension, that the expiry

of copyright entails a 100% market share loss, whereas the lower end estimate assumes no market

loss.

124 The low-end estimate assumes the loss of market share of 0%, whereas the high-end estimate

assumes the loss of market share of 100%.

125 IFPI, 2007.

126 2006 exchange rate EUR/GBP. IFPI, 2007.

EN 57 EN

– In the first decade, performers would get between € 1.1 million and € 18 million,

whereas record producers would get between € 10.2 million and € 163 million.

To determine what, on average, this implies for an individual performer, the number of

performers benefiting from the additional revenue must be estimated. The UK House of

Commons Culture, Media and Sport Committee report provides an estimate. It concludes

that, over the next ten year, over 7000 performers would lose protection if the term was

not extended127. This means that if we extrapolate the UK estimate to the EU,

approximately 24500 performers would lose protection in the first decade. By dividing

the financial benefits for performers (€ 1.1 million and € 18 million) by 24500

performers, the average additional benefit per performer ranges from € 46 and € 737.

The average additional benefit per performers would increase if the effects of a fund

proposed in sub-option 2b would be factored in. Under this model, 20% of the record

producers' benefit from term extension would be redistributed to performers. The fund

would therefore yield between € 7.8 million and € 151.7 million in the whole period and

between € 2 million and € 32.5 million in the first decade.

If the fund were set up, the income to performers and record producers would therefore

have to be redistributed:

– In the first decade, performers benefit would be increased to between € 3.2 million

and € 50.6 million; whereas record producers would obtain between € 8.2 million and

€ 130.1 million.

– Average financial benefit to a performer would yield to between € 130 and € 2065.

It results from the above that the establishment of the fund would increase average

payments per performers 2.8 times.

An increase in A&R spending and a better financial situation of the recording industry

will therefore provide increased opportunities for performers in both popular and niche

repertoire. According to the PWC study, A&R amounts to 17% of revenues.

– If the estimated financial benefit of the record producers is between € 39 million and €

758.5 million, this results in the additional A&R value of between € 6.7 million and €

129 million. If, however, a fund diverting 20% of record producers' additional revenue

to performers were set up, record companies' additional revenue would be between €

31.3 million and € 607 million, which would result in the additional A&R value of

between € 5.3 million and € 103 million.

– In the first decade, the additional A&R value would be between € 1.7 million and €

27.6 million. If, however, a fund diverting 20% of record producers' additional

revenue to performers were set up, the additional A&R value would be between € 1.4

million and € 22.1 million.

– Part of this additional investment will benefit directly new EU performers.

127 UK House of Commons Committee for Culture, Media and Sport, May 2007.

EN 58 EN

WHOLE PERIOD UK (million £) EU (million €) Benefit

without fund

(million €)

A&R / average

(without fund)

(million €)

Fund

(million €)

Benefit with

fund

(million €)

A&R / average

(with fund)

(million €)

Record Loss of market producers 758.5 A&R 128.9 606.8 A&R 103.2

share of 100% Performers

162.8 842.7

84.3 avg /

151.7

236.0 avg /

Loss of market Record producers 666.7 A&R 113.3 533.3 A&R 90.7

share of 50% Performers

143.1 740.8

74.1 avg /

133.3

207.4 avg /

Loss of market Record producers 39.1 A&R 6.7 31.3 A&R 5.3

share of 0% Performers

8.4 43.5

4.3 avg / 7.8 12.2 avg /

FIRST TEN YEARS UK (million £) EU (million €) Benefit

without fund

(million €)

A&R / average

(without fund)

(million €)

Fund

(million €)

Benefit with

fund

(million €)

A&R / average

(with fund)

(million €)

Loss of market Record producers 162.6 A&R 27.6 130.1 A&R 22.1

share of 100% Performers

34.9 180.7

18.1 avg 737.4

32.5

50.6 avg 2064.7

Loss of market Record producers 127.2 A&R 21.6 101.7 A&R 17.3

share of 50% Performers

27.3 141.3

14.1 avg 576.8

25.4

39.6 avg 1615.1

Loss of market Record producers 10.2 A&R 1.7 8.2 A&R 1.4

share of 0% Performers

2.2 11.4

1.1 avg 46.5 2.0 3.2 avg 130.2

avg = average

Table 2A: Impacts on performers and record producers

EN 59 EN

4. ROYALTY FLOWS BETWEEN THE EU AND THE US FOR SECONDARY

EXPLOITATION OF PHONOGRAMS UNDER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

The main international conventions for the protection of phonograms are the 1961 Rome

Convention for the protection of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting

organisations, and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty. The EC is party

only to the WPPT but has not yet ratified. The U.S. is also party to the WPPT but has

ratified. All EU Member States are parties to the Rome Convention.

4.1. Broadcasting and communication to the public of 'US phonograms'

4.1.1. Under the Rome Convention

The Rome Convention provides that broadcasting and communication to the public of

phonograms gives rise to the payment of a single equitable remuneration to the producers

or performers or both (Article 12). Although the US is not a party to the Rome

Convention, it can still benefit from protection under the Convention, because in

principle Contracting Parties to the Convention apply the so-called 'national treatment'

principle to performers and producers. This means that in a Contracting Party certain

producers and performers who are not nationals of that state should be treated in the same

way as nationals, i.e. granted the same rights.

The Rome Convention provides criteria (so-called 'points of attachment') to establish

which record producers and performers are entitled to national treatment. Under Article 5

of the Convention, producers are protected if they are nationals of a Contracting State to

the Convention ('nationality criteria'), or if the sound was fixed in the record in another

Contracting State ('fixation criteria'), or if the phonogram was first published in another

contracting state ('publication criteria'). This would not cover US records. However,

under Article 5(2), if a phonogram is published first in a non-contracting state, such as

the US, and published within 30 days in another contracting state, such as the UK, it will

be eligible for national treatment ('simultaneous publication'). In that situation, by virtue

of article 4 of the Convention, the performer whose performance is recorded will also be

eligible for protection under the Convention. This means it is possible for records

produced by a US company, recorded in the US and by US artists, published first in the

US but published in the UK or another State which is party to the Convention within 30

days, to enjoy protection under the Convention in all the contracting states, i.e. in effect

in all EU Member States.

However, Contracting Parties to the Rome Convention may limit the application of

certain criteria by way of notification under Article 5(3). Parties may decide not to apply

either the 'publication criteria' or the 'fixation criteria' to determine whether a producer

(and indirectly, a performer) is eligible for national treatment. If a State retains only the

fixation criteria, 'simultaneous publication' will no longer qualify a US phonogram for

protection under the Convention. This is the case in the following EU Member States:

Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Luxemburg, Poland, Slovenia and

Spain. As a result, these EU Member States will not apply the Rome Convention and will

not grant a reproduction right or a right to single equitable remuneration to phonograms

produced by a US producer, or fist fixed in the US.

EN 60 EN

Moreover, under Article 16(1)(a), States may decide to not apply or limit the effect of

Article 12 of the Convention (single equitable remuneration). Possible limitations include

not applying equitable remuneration to phonograms the producer of which is not a

national of another Contracting State. This reservation has been notified by the following

EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Estonia, France, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia,

Netherlands, Czech Republic, Romania, UK, Slovakia and Spain. As a result of those

exemptions, these Member States will not apply equitable remuneration to phonograms

produced by a US record producer.

4.1.2. Under the WPPT

The WPPT is currently in force in the US and in several EU Member States, i.e.

Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania.

The EC is due to ratify the WPPT.

The WPPT provides for a right to equitable remuneration for broadcasting and

communication to the public of works128. It also applies the principle of national

treatment to certain producers and performers. The notifications made under Article 5(3)

of the Rome Convention may be notified also under the WPPT, thus allowing Parties to

choose a first publication or first fixation criteria for eligibility for national treatment. It

is generally understood that EU Member States will be free to make such notifications

even after ratification of the WPPT by the EC. However, these reservations lose their

significance regarding the US, which is a party to WPPT. Phonograms produced by a US

producers will in any case be entitled to national treatment under the WPPT.

However, the US has notified reservations in relation to single equitable remuneration

under Article 15(3). The US reservation reads as follows: "the United States will apply

the provisions of Article 15(1) of the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty only

in respect of certain acts of broadcasting and communication to the public by digital

means for which a direct or indirect fee is charged for reception, and for other

retransmissions and digital phonorecord deliveries, as provided under the United States

law". This means that in effect, the US does not apply single equitable remuneration for

broadcasting and communications to the public.

Due to the US reservation, other parties to the WPPT are entitled not to apply national

treatment to US nationals (Article 4(2)). Under WPPT, EU Member States would not

have to provide that US companies receive single equitable remuneration for the

broadcasting and communication to the public of phonograms produced by US producers

and recorded by US performers. They would have to protect US produced phonograms

only in relation to certain acts of broadcasting and communication to the public as

provided under US law.

However, phonograms produced by a US producer would still be entitled to national

treatment in other respects, i.e. in relation to the rights of reproduction, distribution,

rental and making available.

128 Under the WPPT, Performers and producers enjoy rights of reproduction, distribution, rental, and

making available.

EN 61 EN

4.2. Protection of 'EU phonograms' in the US

Under US Law, sound recordings enjoy copyright protection129. Sound recordings are

protected by law provided that the author is a US or 'treaty party', that the work was first

published in the US or a 'treaty party', or fixed by a national of a 'treaty party'130. In other

words, a record produced by an EU record producer, first published in the EU or first

fixed in the EU qualifies for protection in the US.

Term of protection: The author and of a sound recording is the person who creates it by

fixing it in a copy or phonorecord for the first time. Although the author is the initial

owner of a copyright, it seems sound recordings generally qualify as works made for

hire131 (at any rate they are usually registered as such with the US Copyright Office), and

thus enjoy a term of protection of 95 years from creation132. Under US law, works

created after January 1st 1978 are protected, as long as the work qualifies under section

104 of the US Copyright Act. Thus US does not apply a comparison of terms.

Rights in sound recordings: the copyright in a sound recording entitles the owner to the

rights of reproduction, distribution, rental, lending, the right to make derivative works

and the right to perform the copyrighted work publicly by means of a digital audio

transmission133. The copyright owner does not have the right to authorise performance of

the sound recording publically, i.e. to authorise broadcasting and communication to the

public, other than 'digital audio transmissions'. The right to authorise digital audio

transmissions covers essentially webcasting and digital subscription services. In addition,

where the transmission is not interactive, the consent of the owner of the copyright in the

sound recording is not required. Instead, use of the sound recording is subject to a

statutory licence. Payments under the statutory licence are divided between producers

and performers on a 50-50 basis.

Rights of performers: Performers are not the initial owners of the copyright (i.e. they

don’t undertake to fix the record and they might be subject to work for hire) in a sound

recording. They enjoy very limited rights (in addition to the share of the revenues from

the statutory licence for non interactive webcasting). The protection of performers is

essentially limited to a protection against bootlegging and trafficking in bootlegged

recordings, see 17 U.S.C. 1101.

129 17 U.S.C. 102(7) refers to 'sound recordings', which are defined in section 101 as 'works that

result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds, but not including the

sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work'.

130 17 U.S.C. 104. 'Treaty party' refers inter alia to parties to WTO and WPPT.

131 17 U.S.C. 201(b).

132 17 U.S.C. 302(c).

133 17 U.S.C. 114(a) and 106.


Waarschuwing!

De hierboven weergegeven versie is een momentopname. Zie hiervoor de geldigdheidsdatum bovenaan de regeling.

De regeling kan ondertussen gewijzigd zijn. De meest actuele versie, vandaag geldig, is te vinden op de officiele website van de overheid: voorstel voor een wijziging van de Duurrichtlijn ter verlenging van de beschermingstermijn van fonogrammen

disclaimer WettenSite.nl
Onze wettenverzameling wordt samengesteld op basis van openbare informatie afkomstig van de overheid. Het gebruik van onze informatie is voor eigen risio. Controleer altijd de laatste versie van de wetgeving op de officiele websites van de overheden. De WettenSite.nl kan niet aansprakelijk gesteld worden voor eventuele schade voortkomend uit het gebruik van vertoonde inhoud op deze website. Bij het samenstellen van onze website handelen wij zeer voorzichtig en zorgvuldig. Mocht u een fout vinden, aarzel dan niet om even contact met ons op te nemen.

Deze website wordt mogelijk gemaakt door
De RechtenSite.nl - Het juridische startpunt
hoe sponsor worden van WettenSite.nl
Adverteren op de WettenSite.nl
Via WettenSite.nl worden dagelijks honderden wetteksten opgezocht. Onder onze bezoekers vallen vele juristen, advocaten, notarissen en meer. Maar ook veel rechtenstudenten, economie-studenten, MER-studenten. Ook burgers en bedrijven als rechtzoekenden vinden ons. Een grote doelgroep. Vraag gerust vrijblijvend naar onze mogelijkheden om te adverteren of om sponsor te worden. Uw banner of advertentie kan op onze website staan. Zie onze pagina over adverteren voor alle opties en meer informatie.
contactgegevens
Contactgegevens de WettenSite.nl
Voor vragen, opmerkingen, aanvullingen, linkruil, sponsoring of suggesties kunt u ons e-mailen op info[at]wettensite.nl